Study reveals forests have yet another climate-protection superpower

first_imgScientists looked at reactive gases emitted by trees and other vegetation, finding they have an overall cooling effect on the atmosphere globally.As forests are cleared, emissions of these cooling reactive gases are reduced. The researchers estimate the loss of this function this may contribute 14 percent towards deforestation-caused global warming.The authors write that effective climate policies will require a “robust understanding” of the relationship between land-use change like deforestation and climate, and urge more research be done toward this goal. As big carbon storehouses, forests have the power to influence the climate. So much so that the protection and expansion of forests is a key part of the Paris Agreement, which seeks to lower greenhouse gas emissions and stave off the worst effects of global warming.A new study, published last week in Nature Communications, finds forests may have an even bigger cooling effect on climate than we thought. And that without them, the world may be heating up more quickly than expected.Living vegetation emits gases that can react and combine with other gases in the atmosphere. Some of these, called biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), affect the formation of other compounds like aerosol, ozone and methane, the presence of which can influence atmospheric temperature.For their study, an international team of researchers led by the University of Leeds in the UK looked at these reactive compounds to see what kind of a temperature changes they induce. To do this, they simulated boreal, temperate and tropical forest conditions and calculated different warming and cooling effects through computer modeling.They discovered that while trees emit gases that can warm the atmosphere (e.g., they can increase the formation of ozone and methane), gases that had a cooling effect had a greater overall impact.“We found that the cooling impacts of these gases outweigh the warming impacts, meaning that reactive gases given out by forests have an overall cooling effect on our climate,” said study coauthor Dominick Spracklen, a professor at the University of Leeds.A kapok tree bursts into bloom in the Amazon rainforest. The study found warming and cooling effects related to the emissions of reactive gases is most closely balanced in tropical forests compared to temperate and boreal forests.As forests are cleared, emissions of these cooling reactive gases are reduced. The researchers estimate the loss of this function this may contribute 14 percent towards deforestation-caused global warming.According to the researchers, this study is the first thorough analysis of the climatic impact of non-CO2 reactive gases emitted by forests and how it’s affected by human-caused land-use change.“Most previous assessments on the climate impacts of deforestation have focused on the amount of carbon dioxide that would be emitted, or changes to the way the land-surface exchanges energy and water with the atmosphere,” said lead author Catherine Scott of the University of Leeds. “But as well as taking in carbon dioxide and giving out oxygen, trees emit other gases that take part in complicated chemical reactions in the atmosphere and there are implications for reducing these gases.”The scientists write that effective climate policies will require a “robust understanding” of the relationship between land-use change like deforestation and climate, and urge more research be done toward this goal.“By understanding these complex effects we now know more about how forests are affecting our climate, and we are able to see a clearer picture of the repercussions of deforestation,” Scott said. Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored boreal forests, carbon, Carbon Sequestration, Climate, Climate Change, Climate Politics, Environment, Gas, Global Warming, Global Warming Mitigation, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Rainforests, Research, Temperate Forests, Trees, Tropical Forests Citation:Scott, C. E., Monks, S. A., Spracklen, D. V., Arnold, S. R., Forster, P. M., Rap, A., … & Ehn, M. (2018). Impact on short-lived climate forcers increases projected warming due to deforestation. Nature Communications, 9(1), 157.FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the editor of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page. Article published by Morgan Erickson-Davislast_img read more

Corals thrive on remotest islands in the Galápagos

first_imgOur first reef community stop in the Reefscape project was the Galápagos Islands in December 2017.We found that ocean events such as El Niño can wipe out huge areas of reef, yet coral survival and regrowth remain evident.Our direct actions, be the destructive overfishing or constructive protection, have a huge impact on the future of coral reef ecosystems.One size does not fit all when it comes to coral reefs — even an archipelago hammered by coral-killing warm waters can harbor refugia for biodiversity. Adapted from Bing Maps.The Galápagos Islands are not widely known for their coral reefs. Most visitors to the islands’ waters seek big charismatic residents like sharks, manta rays, sea lions and whales, or unique creatures like marine iguanas. Dive shops in the Galápagos almost exclusively advertise the opportunity to see these large creatures, while few mention corals. Yet the archipelago is home to vibrant reefs, and we commenced the global Reefscape project there.Perhaps so little is mentioned about reefs in the Galápagos today because of a history of coral bleaching across the archipelago. The scientific literature reports ocean temperature spikes of up to 4 degrees Celsius (7.2 degrees Fahrenheit) during the 1982-83 and 1997-98 El Niño events, and again to a much lesser degree in 2015. El Niño’s hot waters pushed many corals beyond their thermal tolerances, resulting in widespread reef-scale bleaching.last_img read more

Understanding bird behavior key to developing risk reduction technologies

first_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored Article published by Sue Palminteri Billions of birds collide with man-made structures and aircraft every year, which devastates bird populations and harms companies that must pay the cost of damages.John Swaddle, professor of biology at the College of William & Mary, and his team have developed two technologies to help reduce the risk of collision, the Sonic Net and the Acoustic Lighthouse.The team applied an understanding of birds’ communication and migration behaviors to develop strategies that successfully reduce collision risk. Years of studying birds and their relationship with their environment taught John Swaddle, professor of biology at the College of William & Mary, the importance of understanding animals’ instincts and behaviors when developing methods for improving human-wildlife interactions.Swaddle used what he knew about different bird species’ tendencies to create a pair of systems that minimize collisions with tall man-made structures, such as skyscrapers or wind turbines, and keep birds away from areas where their presence may be unwelcome or a hazard, such as on farmland or airports. He presented his findings in February at the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Austin, Texas.In his presentation, Swaddle introduced two different technologies, the Sonic Net and the Acoustic Lighthouse.A bald eagle surveys the landscape from a treetop. Eagles and other large birds seeking a high perch or looking down for prey below may accidentally collide with wind turbine blades. Photo credit: Martin Keus, courtesy of Quoddy Tours CC 2.0Testing Sonic Nets to remove birds from risky areasWhen working on the Sonic Net, Swaddle kept the long-standing practice of scarecrows on farmland in mind. He recognized that scarecrows only temporarily discourage birds from visiting an area because birds learn that they are not a real threat.“Birds are pretty smart, they habituate, and if the threat is not real they know and they stick around,” Swaddle said. “Those kinds of technologies just show diminishing returns, no matter how high-tech the technology gets. Birds will still habituate if you don’t take into account fundamental aspects of their behavior.”A fast-moving plane in flight, such as this China Eastern plane near London’s Heathrow airport, can confuse or overwhelm a flock of birds. Photo credit: LHR_NMOS332 CC 2.0Instead, Swaddle looked for long-term solutions. He considered noise pollution and how a higher concentration of noise in an area affects birds. Birds are attracted to quieter areas, where they have a better perception of the predatory risks. Introducing noise prompts birds to perceive greater risk, and they begin to avoid the area.Rather than introducing extraneous noise to a wide area to keep the birds away – which would then affect humans and other wildlife within the area – Swaddle and his team used parametric array speakers, which direct the artificial “pink” noise to a specific space. The speakers enabled Swaddle to direct sound to areas they wanted birds to avoid. They were also able to control the noise’s frequency, so that the sound interfered with the birds’ communication.An upright Sonic Net setup used to direct loud random pink noise toward agricultural fields to discourage particularly seed-eating birds from flocking in fields with ripening crops. Photo courtesy of: Sam McClintock, Midstream IncThey tested this approach using captive European starlings. When the Sonic Net was set at a frequency that simulated the frequency the birds use to communicate, the starlings’ vigilance immediately increased. By hindering their ability to communicate, the loud noise prevented them from being able to hear and respond to alarm calls, forcing them to remain more vigilant and forage less efficiently.In fact, when the team tried to scare the birds, they didn’t perceive the risk and react to the threat. Despite the birds’ increased vigilance, the artificial sound overwhelmed their senses. The methods were also tested in the wild, at an active airfield site in Virginia, where noise discouraged birds from occupying the area.The Sonic Net designed for airports has a low profile to minimize distraction to pilots and others. The speakers in this design direct the loud random noise toward active runways and other areas that may be risky for birds. Photo courtesy of: Sam McClintock, Midstream Inc“In an area where a lot of this introduced noise is specifically designed to prevent them from hearing each other, that’s equivalent to (humans) walking down the dark alleyway,” Swaddle said. “If we give them the choice of a place with less noise, they’ll choose to go there.”Their study, which was published in Ecological Applications, also found that the birds did not habituate to the Sonic Net method after four weeks, which is an encouraging sign that this could become a long-term solution.Common, or European, starlings like these in Northern Ireland, feed in groups on insects in fields, lawns, city parks, or airports. Their large flocks can create problems on active airport runways. Photo credit: Henry Clark CC 2.0An Acoustic Lighthouse to reduce birds’ collisions with man-made structuresSwaddle’s conference presentation also introduced the Acoustic Lighthouse method for minimizing birds’ collisions with large human-made structures. In a study published in Integrative and Comparative Biology, Swaddle and his team set out to discover why birds fly into objects that are seemingly obvious to humans and how directed sound could help the birds notice a structure before a collision.Swaddle explained that when birds are flying, especially during migration, they aren’t looking straight ahead to see where they’re going – rather, their head is angled down with their back flat. The birds’ eyes are also positioned around the side of the skull, instead of in front.“When birds are flying, their angle of view, direction of gaze, is really to the side and down,” Swaddle said. “Some birds, some of the eagles, actually have a blind spot in front of them, so they can’t see, and their attention is not where it should be.”The solution, which the team named an Acoustic Lighthouse, projects conspicuous warning sounds in front of a structure. As the bird approaches the building or wind turbine, the sound diverts the direction of the bird’s attention early enough to avoid a collision.The Acoustic Lighthouse study has not yet been tested in the wild, but Swaddle said results from his captive study look promising. When testing it with 18 domestic zebra finches, his team found that an audible sound field caused the birds to slow down in flight and alter their body and tail position in about 20 percent of cases. These birds would collide with the structure at a much lower velocity or avoid it all together.A zebra finch, native to central Australia, collects nesting material. Like starlings, they inhabit a wide range of grasslands and open woodlands. Photo credit: Gil Dekel CC 3.0Swaddle said that successful development of technologies such as Sonic Net and Acoustic Lighthouse require basic understanding of bird and other wildlife behaviors and responses.  “Without a fundamental understanding of what animals are actually doing, how they’re sensing the world and how they’re behaving, you can’t even develop these kinds of ideas,” Swaddle said. Acoustic, Alternative Energy, Birds, early warning, Energy, Human-wildlife Conflict, Technology, Wildtech FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the editor of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page.last_img read more