In defining plantations as forest, FAO attracts criticism

first_imgThe FAO lumps non-oil palm tree plantations into its definition of forest cover when conducting its Global Forest Resource Assessments. The assessments analyze land cover change in countries around the world using largely self-reported data.Nearly 200 organizations have signed an open letter authored by the NGO World Rainforest Movement to change how they define forest.Remote sensing technology currently doesn’t provide the ability to differentiate the canopies of forests and tree plantations. But researchers say that within a decade, technological advances will make this a reality.A representative of FAO said the organization is unlikely to change its definition since it is already well established and accepted by governments and other stakeholders. What’s in a definition? For some, too much.Nearly 200 organizations have signed an open letter to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), calling for the agency to change how they define “forest” – the very landscape honored today on International Day of Forests. FAO’s definition is too inclusive, writes the World Rainforest Movement (WRM), the non-profit that authored the letter.“There is an urgent need for the FAO to stop misrepresenting industrial tree plantations as ‘planted forests’ or ‘forestry’… This deliberate confusion of tree plantations with forests is misleading people, because forests in general are viewed as something positive and beneficial,” WRM writes.Tree plantations do not provide the same benefits as forests, they argue, and should be removed from the agency’s definition – the “the most widely used forest definition today,” according to a study.The letter adds fuel to an ongoing debate about how the basic term, “forest,” is defined.Under FAO’s definition, natural forest and tree cover are represented equally. As a result, a Christmas tree farm in Iowa is as much of a forest as a jungle in Ecuador, assuming it meets some basic area requirements. Plantations of other timber, such as rubber and eucalyptus (but not oil palm), are also considered forest by the FAO – even when the plantation is “temporarily unstocked due to clear-cutting.”An acacia plantation in Sabah, Malaysia. Photo by Rhett A. ButlerWorld Rainforest Movement claims that defining forest inclusive of tree plantations is problematic – as do scientists.“You certainly should not be including plantations in a definition of forest cover,” William Laurance, a Distinguished Research Professor at James Cook University in Australia, told Mongabay. “Overall, plantations are just nothing like natural forests.”Especially when it comes to biodiversity, he adds. Plantations typically comprise even-aged trees of a single species, forming a wood monoculture – they’re optimized for wood production, after all. Once you add in an intensive harvest cycle, there’s really not much value for wildlife compared to the native vegetation in which they evolved.“For biodiversity and anything related to biodiversity, like pollination, plantations don’t compare to natural forests,” Laurance said. “In general, plantations would be more similar to your front lawn then they would be to a forest, in terms of their biological composition.”Assuming your front lawn isn’t on the steps of the Amazon, that is.Other researchers echo Laurance’s sentiment, suggesting that plantations do indeed provide value for timber production and some other services, but they should be considered separately from natural forests.“Combining both natural forests and plantations can provide very misleading information because they offer very different things to people,” Robin Chazdon, professor emerita at the University of Connecticut and Senior Fellow at the World Resources Institute (WRI), told Mongabay. “This is not to say that plantations shouldn’t be counted – they’re important for timber production – but they should be classified as plantations.”So why are the two unified under FAO’s definition?The definition was developed in the late 20th century for FAO’s “Global Forest Resource Assessment” (FRA), one of the agency’s flagship projects that produces global forest cover statistics every five years. FRA relies on country-reported data to compile the assessment – a self-reporting of sorts – and the consistency and quality of those data depends on a broad, universally-accepted definition of forest.“The aim of the definition is to enable consistent reporting and gather reliable data…,” Anssi Pekkarinen, an FAO official, said in an email to Mongabay. “Maintaining a broad definition of ‘Forest’ allows many different ‘forest types’ to be included which satisfies the needs of most countries.”In other words, the FRA has to collate data from hundreds of countries, so simplicity is paramount.The definition also reflects the FAO’s legacy, researchers say. Just look at the name, “Forest Resources Assessment,” said Rachael Petersen, Impacts Manager at WRI’s forest-monitoring platform Global Forest Watch.“It’s about using forests as a resource; it’s not necessarily a conservation focused assessment,” Petersen told Mongabay. “It’s really about looking at forests as resources and, with that lens, you want to look at production forests because they’re actually providing products.”Managed tree plantations have their place, many researchers agree. Indeed, they provide valuable economic resources and, in some cases, ecological services that are comparable to natural forests. But it shouldn’t be included in the definition of “forest,” say conservation groups like World Rainforest Movement, because this misconception produces consequences beyond confusion.Under FAO’s definition, supplanting native forest with tree plantations does not register as deforestation – it’s reported as net neutral. This allows countries to “mask” loss of native forests when they report forest cover to the FAO, Laurance says. In India and China – this is already happening, he says. And in Chile, it’s the same story.“If you think about that definition, a rainforest is a forest, but if it’s turned into a plantation, it’s still a forest,” Matt Hansen, a leading expert on remote sensing and professor at the University of Maryland told Mongabay.But deforestation in the wake of plantation expansion is far from the FAO’s intent – it “must be avoided for a range of reasons,” FAO’s Pekkarinen said.And the FAO isn’t completely to blame, according to Chazdon.“Countries are taking advantage of the vagueness of the definition to support whatever they want to show,” she said. “That’s not really FAO’s fault.”According to Laurance, FAO is moving towards a more objective approach to forest assessments that involves remote sensing. Just as police use security footage to verify crime reports, researchers can use high-resolution satellite imagery to verify reports of forest cover change.But a big problem lies in their way. Although tree plantations are biologically distinct from natural forests, the two land types don’t look very different. Especially to satellites.An acacia plantation abuts natural rainforest in Malaysia. Can you tell the difference? Photo by Rhett A. Butler“With the freely available satellite imagery, often times the canopy of mature plantation forests looks very similar to natural forests,” Petersen told Mongabay. “A lot of algorithms [for analyzing satellite imagery] look at the presence or absence of tree cover, but aren’t sophisticated enough to differentiate different types of tree cover.”As a result, harvesting trees from a plantation will register the same as deforestation, she says.For example, take the University of Maryland’s Global Land Analysis and Discovery (GLAD) dataset, used frequently in reporting at Mongabay. The alerts point to areas where tree cover loss has likely occurred. Global Forest Watch, which visualizes the dataset, decisively calls these “tree cover loss alerts” instead of “deforestation alerts” because, in some cases, they may signal a plantation harvest.Tree cover loss alerts from the University of Maryland’s Global Land Analysis and Discovery (GLAD) lab currently register in both plantation concessions and primary forest (shown here in East Kalimantan, Indonesia). While the latter is likely deforestation, the former may include both the harvesting of plantation stock and the clearing of natural forest.So we’re back to the same problem – whether they’re pixels on a computer or numbers in the latest FAO Forest Resources Assessment, tree plantations and natural forests still have equal representation.But not for long, researchers say.According to Petersen, Global Forest Watch is experimenting with what she calls “deep learning techniques” – a phrase you may only hear on the streets of Silicon Valley – to differentiate natural forest from tree plantations using artificial intelligence. The technology is not unlike what Facebook uses to automatically detect friends in your photos.“We’re working with a Silicon Valley artificial intelligence company to try and differentiate plantation forests based on their shape,” she said. “The technology learns the pattern, shape, and texture of a plantation so that it can identify them.”Matt Hansen, who created the GLAD dataset used on Global Forest Watch, is equally optimistic that remote sensing technology – which is much of what his lab is studying – will soon be able to distinguish between natural forests and plantations.“There’s no question that this will be automated at a global scale in ten years,” he told Mongabay. “I think it’s a cool problem, and we can solve it.”But despite advances in remote sensing and petitions from organizations like World Rainforest Movement, it’s unlikely that FAO’s definition will change, Pekkarinen says.“The current definition is a result of an extensive consultation with the governments and other stakeholders,” he said. “Furthermore, it has been adopted by many countries which are using it when collecting data and reporting on forest resources and their changes. Considering this, and the fact that this well-established definition has been used since FRA 2000, FAO has no plan to change the forest definition.”Disclaimer: Mongabay and the World Resources Institute (WRI) have a funding partnership, and the author worked for WRI between 2013 and 2015. However, Mongabay retains sole editorial control of all stories produced. Artificial Intelligence, Biodiversity, Deforestation, Environment, Forest Loss, Forests, Habitat Loss, Industrial Agriculture, Plantations, Primary Forests, Pulp And Paper, Rainforests, Remote Sensing, Research, Satellite Imagery, Tropical Forests Article published by Morgan Erickson-Daviscenter_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredlast_img read more

Surprisingly, Indonesia’s most famous dive site is also a playground for whales and dolphins (commentary)

first_imgArticle published by Mike Gaworecki Raja Ampat — an island chain in Indonesia’s West Papua province — is world renowned for its beautiful and unique marine biodiversity. But its marine mammals have not received as much attention.Half of the 31 whale and dolphin species found in all of Indonesia — 16 different types — have been regularly observed there.However, a designated long-term study of the behavior of whales and dolphins there has yet to be conducted. We don’t know much about them; more to the point, we don’t know how to effectively protect them.This post is a commentary. The views expressed are those of the author, not necessarily Mongabay. Bottlenose dolphins in Raja Ampat. Photo by Heike Iris Vester / Ocean Sounds.Raja Ampat — an island chain in Indonesia’s West Papua province — is world-renowned for its beautiful and unique marine biodiversity. But its marine mammals have not received much attention despite the fact that half of the 31 whale and dolphin species found in all of Indonesia — 16 different types — have been regularly observed there.Raja Ampat, or “four kings,” consists of hundreds of islands, although the four largest dominate: Waigeo, Batanta, Salawati, and Misool. The archipelago’s Dampier and Sagewin Straits host major oceanic and biomass exchanges between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, making Raja Ampat a major transit point for megafauna like whales and dolphins. Our preliminary research indicates that multiple species are feeding, mating, and calving in the area, making Raja Ampat a critical habitat for whales. However, a designated long-term study of the behavior of whales and dolphins there has yet to be conducted. We don’t know much about them; more to the point, we don’t know how to effectively protect them.Short-finned pilot whales in Raja Ampat. Photo by Heike Iris Vester / Ocean Sounds.Whales play a key role in the health of marine ecosystems, from predator-prey interactions to fertilization through prodigious amounts of poop and upwelling of deep-sea nutrients. Across Raja Ampat, small dolphins are numerous; these predators influence fish populations, and at the same time they are preyed upon by large sharks and killer whales. Sperm, Baleen, and other large whales bring nutrients from their 3,000-meter-deep dives to the ocean’s surface, adding essential nutrients and supporting a healthy marine ecosystem. In Raja Ampat, both sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) and Bryde’s whales (Balaenoptera brydei) are seen regularly and in great numbers; their role in the health of the marine ecosystem in Raja Ampat is profound.Usually marine mammals are found in cold, nutrient-rich waters near the poles. Although many whales and dolphins make long migrations between polar feeding grounds and breeding grounds closer to the equator, we did not expect the rich abundance of whales and dolphins in Raja Ampat.Sperm whales in Raja Ampat. Photo by Heike Iris Vester / Ocean Sounds.In January 2015, equipped with a camera and hydrophone to record whale sounds, we went out into Raja Ampat’s Dampier Strait, and to our shock, found 15 different species of whales, dolphins, and dugong in the first week. On every boat trip out we encountered small Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus). More numerous were the oceanic dolphins, such as the acrobatic spinner dolphins and spotted dolphins which can travel in packs of over 1,000! We encountered large groups of short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) feeding on squid; they were often accompanied by bottlenose dolphins, Fraser’s dolphins (Lagenodelphis hosei), and even pygmy killer whales (Feresa attenuata). We found Bryde’s whales: filter-feeders of the Baleen family that consume plankton and small fish. We also saw pods of sperm whales: these huge mammals, as well as Bryde’s whales, were observed mating and calving in previously unknown feeding and breeding grounds, with peak activity between December and early March. We even encountered a large adult killer whale (Orcinus orca) in the Dampier: these are rare in tropical waters, but two pods have been spotted. In Raja Ampat they feed on manta rays, dolphins, and newborn Bryde’s whales.Negative impacts on cetaceans were also observed. Whales are scarred from boat collisions; some dorsal fins were completely severed. Boat traffic, especially from large speed boats and ferries, are a major threat to cetaceans in the Dampier Strait; the daily Sorong–Waisai passenger ferry nearly collided with a sperm whale when we were on it. The need to educate people using the strait, and establish protocols for shipping traffic, is obvious, as is the need to introduce and regulate whale-watching tourism, so that locals can benefit from the giants in their neighborhood.Short-finned pilot whale with severed dorsal fin, Dampier Strait, February 2015 . Photo by Heike Iris Vester / Ocean Sounds.In order to assess the health of Raja Ampat’s biodiversity, and the Bird’s Head ecosystem — that off the northwestern coast of New Guinea island — more broadly, it is essential to both protect and study whales and dolphins. In the coming years, the University of Papua and Ocean Sounds, an international NGO, will be doing so, in order to better understand cetacean life cycles and behaviors, and ultimately, to create protection plans. We’ll be tracking individual whales through non-invasive photo identification and the building of databases that will ultimately show the routes by which whales travel throughout Indonesia.We intend to establish a marine research station in Raja Ampat, not only to conduct research, but also to teach people about whales and dolphins.Kabupaten Raja Ampat, West Papua, Indonesia. Photo by Buzz.About the authors:Heike Iris Vester ([email protected]) is the founder and director of Ocean Sounds, a group dedicated to marine research, education and conservation through engagement with local communities. Ocean Sounds focuses on the biology and vocal communication of cetaceans, and has projects in Chile and Norway; they will soon open an office in Indonesia. Ricardo F. Tapilatu ([email protected]) is the director of the Research Center for Pacific Marine Resources at the University of Papua (UNIPA). The Center is dedicated to the research and conservation of Pacific Marine Resources across the Bird’s Head Seascape in the western Pacific region. The Centre is the only local organization engaged in Pacific Leatherback Turtle protection in the world’s largest remaining nesting beaches in West Papua.Ocean Sounds and UNIPA both work closely with APEX Environmental, a group with extensive expertise in oceanic whale and dolphin surveys, cetacean ecology research, conservation, management, policy development, and training.FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page. Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredcenter_img Animals, Conservation, Dolphins, Environment, Mammals, Marine Animals, Marine Biodiversity, Marine Conservation, Marine Mammals, Whales, Wildlife last_img read more

Anthraxcarrying flies follow monkeys through the forest

first_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Anthrax-carrying flies follow monkeys through the forest Nearly 12% of the flies carried sylvatic anthrax, which causes more than 38% of wildlife deaths in rainforest ecosystems. The researchers hypothesize that flies could be at least partially responsible for the persistent spread of the disease, which is transmitted by a different microbe from the type of anthrax that infects people. A few flies also carried the bacterium that causes yaws, a disfiguring skin disease that affects both humans and animals.Next, the team will explore whether flies follow groups of hunter-gatherer humans around, and whether these fly behaviors have caused primates to change their own behavior over time. Although mangabeys are known to use tools, researchers have not yet observed them wielding fly swatters.*Correction, 12 July, 3:55 p.m.: The original picture that ran with this item was of a chimpanzee, not a monkey. The image has been updated. By Eva FrederickJul. 12, 2019 , 1:30 PM Humans aren’t the only primates flies follow around. The insects tail monkeys, too, according to a new study, and they can carry deadly pathogens such as anthrax.Researchers followed a group of approximately 60 wild sooty mangabeys (their relative, the gray mangabey, is pictured), small furry monkeys with light-colored eyelids and long slender arms and legs, in the tropical rainforest of Taï National Park in Ivory Coast. They caught flies within the group of mangabeys and at distances up to 1 kilometer away. The researchers found about eight to 11 times more flies inside the group than in the rest of the forest. The same was true for three different groups of chimps.Next, the team gently dabbed nail polish on nearly 1600 flies to find out whether the same group of insects followed the mangabeys, or whether the primates attracted different flies as they moved through the trees. The marked flies kept turning up around the mangabeys, even 12 days later when the group had moved more than 1 kilometer away, the team reports in Molecular Ecology. Email Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Mark Bowler/Science Source Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwelast_img read more