Four Indonesian farmers charged in killing of orangutan that was shot 130 times

first_imgAnimals, Apes, Borneo Orangutan, Conservation, Crime, Critically Endangered Species, Environment, Environmental Crime, Great Apes, Human-wildlife Conflict, Law Enforcement, Orangutans, Wildlife, Wildlife Crime Article published by Basten Gokkon Police in Indonesia have arrested four farmers for allegedly shooting a Bornean orangutan whose body was found riddled with 130 air gun pellets.The suspects claimed to have killed the animal because it had encroached onto their pineapple farm and ruined the crop.The killing was the second such case reported this year in Indonesia, where orangutans are ostensibly protected under the conservation act. But lax enforcement means few perpetrators ever face justice for killing or trading in these great apes. JAKARTA — Police in Indonesia have arrested and charged four farmers with the killing of an orangutan found shot more than 100 times.Investigators in East Kalimantan province, in Indonesian Borneo, detained the four men on Feb. 15 and charged them the following day. They have been identified as 36-year-old Muis; H. Nasir, 55; and Andi and Rustam, both 37. (Many Indonesians go by one name.)As part of the arrest, police also seized four pellet guns allegedly used in the killing.The male Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) was found barely alive on Feb. 5 by officials from Kutai National Park in East Kalimantan. An X-ray revealed its body was riddled with 130 air gun pellets. It died the next day from its extensive injuries.Teddy Ristiawan, the chief of the East Kutai district police, said in a statement on Feb. 17 that the five suspects “all took turns shooting at the orangutan.” Police said a fifth person, a 13-year-old boy, was also involved in the killing, but would not be charged because he was a minor.Police in East Kalimantan hold a press conference to announce the arrest of the four farmers, in orange jumpsuits, charged with shooting and killing a Bornean orangutan earlier this year. Photo courtesy of the Environment and Forestry Ministry in East Kalimantan.According to police, the farmers killed the orangutan because they believed it had encroached onto their pineapple farm and ruined their crop. An autopsy conducted earlier had revealed pineapple remnants in the animal’s stomach.The police have charged the suspects with violating the 1990 conservation act. Under the specific article on killing protected animals, which include the critically endangered Bornean orangutan, the suspects could face prison time of up to five years and fines of up to 100 million rupiah ($7,000).East Kalimantan province is home to an estimated 2,900 orangutans, more than 60 percent of which inhabit Kutai National Park, according data from the environment ministry.The use of air guns, which can be purchased without having to obtain a license and which fire pellets similar to those recovered from the dead orangutan, is common among farmers and plantation workers in East Kalimantan, and other regions that overlap with orangutan habitats, to hunt down animals they see as pests.A recent study suggested that orangutan killing in Borneo was a key factor in the loss of nearly 150,000 of the apes between 1999 and 2015, alongside deforestation and forest clearing for industrial plantations.The orangutan killing in East Kalimantan was the second such case reported in Indonesia this year. In January, an orangutan was found decapitated and shot more than a dozen times with a pellet gun in a river in Central Kalimantan. Police have arrested and charged two rubber farmers in connection with the killing of the protected species.The Bornean orangutan is listed by the IUCN as “Critically Endangered,” or close to vanishing in the wild. The main threats to the species’ survival are hunting, loss of habitat as forests across Borneo are razed to make way for monoculture plantations and mines, and poaching for the illegal pet trade.Orangutans are ostensibly protected by law, but lax enforcement means few perpetrators ever face justice for killing or trading in these great apes.A veterinarian looks at an X-ray photo of the Bornean orangutan, showing 130 pellets in its body. Photo courtesy of the Centre for Orangutan Protection.Banner image: A Bornean orangutan. Photo by Rhett A. Butler.FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page.center_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredlast_img read more

Hope for the rarest hornbill in the world (commentary)

first_imgArticle published by Mike Gaworecki There are three Critically Endangered hornbill species in the world. The rarest, the Sulu hornbill in the Philippines, is little studied, does not occur in any protected areas, and is in imminent danger of extinction.In January 2018, a team of conservationists from the Philippines, Thailand, and Singapore visited the only known habitat of this bird to assess its status and make recommendations regarding its survival.Five individuals were located, as well as a potential nesting site. Work will continue this year to train local rangers in hornbill study techniques; the patches of forest where the Sulu hornbill clings on should be granted legal protection from logging, hunting, and human encroachment.This post is a commentary. The views expressed are those of the author, not necessarily Mongabay. Of the 32 hornbill species found in Asia, three are currently considered Critically Endangered with global extinction, according to IUCN criteria.One of those, the helmeted hornbill (Rhinoplax vigil), is currently the focus of a conservation project by a recently formed Helmeted Hornbill Working Group. Another, the rufous-headed hornbill (Rhabdotorrhinus waldeni), is being studied under a project supported by BirdLife International.Meanwhile, the Sulu hornbill (Anthracoceros montani) has the smallest population of any of the Critically Endangered hornbill species and must in fact be considered the rarest and most endangered hornbill in the world. Its distribution range has shrunk, its population has collapsed, and the species is in imminent danger of disappearing altogether — yet it has received no conservation attention.The Sulu hornbill — “tawsi” in the local language — is endemic to the Philippines, occurring only on islands in the Sulu Archipelago between Mindanao and Borneo. It is the sole member of the Bucerotidae family within its area and was described as widespread and abundant at the time of its discovery in 1880. Since then, the population has crashed.Today, the only viable breeding population of the Sulu hornbill known to exist is found on the small island of Tawi-Tawi, where a mere 100 square kilometers (close to 25,000 acres) of suitable forest remains, according to the IUCN. The total global population is estimated to be about 40 individuals.Parts of a hill where the Sulu hornbill has been found has been illegally logged by villagers who moved into the area in recent years. Photo by Bee Choo Strange.Complicating survey work, the Tawi-Tawi island and the Sulu area in general are not safe: there are active insurgents operating in this region. Two European birdwatchers were abducted on Tawi-Tawi in February 2012 while looking to photograph the hornbill. One of them escaped in 2014, but a Dutch national is still believed to be held captive, although he has most likely been moved to another island, possibly Jolo.To facilitate the study and conservation of the Sulu hornbill, Dr. Pilai Poonswad and I visited Tawi-Tawi in January 2018. Dr. Poonswad is Emeritus Professor of Faculty of Science at Mahidol University in Bangkok; she has studied hornbills in Thailand since 1978 and founded the Thailand Hornbill Project. She also founded the Hornbill Research Foundation in 1993 to branch out and share the team’s experience with governments and NGOs in the rest of Asia. Recently, she has agreed to be one of the advisers in the newly re-established Hornbill Specialist Group under the auspices of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.Before our site visit, biodiversity surveys on Tawi-Tawi were conducted by staff of the Philippines Biodiversity Conservation Foundation from September 30 to October 2, 2017. Some two or three Sulu hornbills were seen together in various patches of forest on the island, usually a pair together. The maximum sighting this century was 10 birds seen in one area in 2014 (Paguntalan et al. 2017), all mature individuals. No immature birds have been reported within the last 20 years. In May 2015, a local villager reported seeing the nesting cavity of a Sulu hornbill, with a chick inside, in a large fallen dipterocarp tree. Other than that, there are no nesting records for this species, and little is known about its habitat requirements, breeding habits, or ecology in general. It feeds on fruits and some animal prey such as insects and small lizards. It seems to depend on large forest trees for nesting, but will fly up to one kilometer into nearby plantations and agricultural land to feed.As mentioned, traveling in the Sulu archipelago is not safe. To visit the Sulu hornbill habitat on Panglima Sugala, Tawi-Tawi Province, we needed the co-operation of Mayor Rejie Sahali, Colonel Romulo “Bim” Quemado, and the marine soldiers of the Philippines Marine Corps. Our main target was the secondary forest at Upper Malum. Traveling was difficult and even our military escort vehicle got stuck in the mud several times while traveling the 12 kilometers to the site. We reached an elevation of some 250 meters, although the hill further inland goes to about 500 meters above sea level.During our visit, we managed to locate a total of five Sulu hornbills. Perhaps most importantly, coming back from the hill one of the rangers spotted a hornbill emerging from a hole in a tree. Pilai established that this was a hole produced by a large woodpecker, most likely a White-bellied Woodpecker (Dryocopus javensis). Although this doesn’t constitute a confirmed nesting record, we decided to watch the potential nesting tree the following day in the hope that the male or female would check out the nest hole again.A possible nest hole of a Sulu hornbill. Dr. Pilai Poonswad indicated that the hole is made by a large woodpecker, likely the white-bellied woodpecker. Photo by Bee Choo Strange.Most Asian hornbills start their breeding at the onset of the cool-dry season, when the forest trees flower and ripe fruits are abundant in time for chick rearing. Females of all hornbills in the Bucerotidae family will enter a nesting cavity in a large, living tree after copulation. She will then seal the nest hole with her feces, regurgitated food, and mud until it is an elongated vertical slit, large enough for the male to deliver food to the female and later the chick or chicks. She will stay there until her young fledge. Unfortunately, no hornbills returned to the hole we had observed, as there was disturbance by the locals — on-going logging at the site using chainsaws.The forest patch where the Sulu hornbill occurs now is only about 10 square kilometers in area (a little under 2,500 acres). It is currently not protected in any way; in fact, there are no nature reserves or national parks in the Tawi-Tawi Province at all. Of utmost priority is to gazette the remaining quality forest on the island as protected area, safe from logging operations, mining, hunting, and intrusion from settlers.Mayor Rejie and Colonel Bim are working with Philippines authorities to gazette the site as a wildlife sanctuary. The municipality has employed six Tawsi rangers from the village near the forest to survey and safeguard the local hornbill population. Pilai also recommended a survey to identify figs and other food and nest trees of the hornbills, as well as installation of artificial nest boxes at the site with the aim of providing nest holes, as there may not be sufficient trees for the birds to nest. There are plans for a program to be put in place to engage with the villagers to plant fig trees and other hornbill food trees and also trees that provide nest holes for the species.Once the security situation in the area is normalized, this beautiful terrain could ideally be opened up as an eco-tourism site for everyone to visit and enjoy. Apart from the hornbills, there are some six species and 23 subspecies of birds endemic to the Sulu region, i.e. found nowhere else in the world (Paguntalan et al. 2017).In the meantime, more studies are needed to improve our understanding of the Sulu hornbill’s requirements. Towards the end of our visit, it was decided to bring some of the rangers and other local conservationists for training with the Hornbill Research Foundation at their facilities in the Khao Yai National Park in Thailand. There they will learn plant phenology, tree climbing techniques, and other skills essential for hornbill studies.Locally in the Philippines, there is an increased awareness of the importance of biodiversity studies and conservation. It is encouraging that, with co-operation from national officials and decision makers, we are now starting an international support program that is bringing hope to the last remaining population of the Sulu hornbill.A pair of Sulu hornbills, male on the left and female on the right. Picture taken at site. Photo by Nicky Icarangal.CITATIONS• Paguntalan, L.J., Jakosalem, P.G., Quemado, R., Sahali-Generale, R., Fernandez, G., de la Cruz, M., & Sali, E.D. (2017). Tawi-Tawi Biodiversity Conservation Project: Philippines Hornbills Conservation Programme. Philippines Biodiversity Conservation Foundation Inc.• Poonswad, P., Kemp, A. & Strange, M. (2013). Hornbills of the World: A Photographic Guide. Draco Publishing and Hornbill Research Foundation.Bee Choo Strange is a Singaporean nature conservationist. She is the international coordinator of the Hornbill Research Foundation, based in Thailand. She was project director of Hornbills of the World (Poonswad et al., 2013). Animals, Birds, Commentary, Conservation, Editorials, Endangered Species, Environment, Researcher Perspective Series, Saving Species From Extinction, Wildlife, Wildlife Conservation center_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredlast_img read more

Five years after zero-deforestation vow, little sign of progress from Indonesian pulp giant

first_imgEnvironmental watchdogs have criticized Indonesian paper behemoth Asia Pulp and Paper (APP) for not making good on the zero-deforestation pledge it made five years ago.The NGOs have highlighted several key problems in the implementation of APP’s Forest Conservation Program, including virtually no progress in addressing longstanding land conflicts with local communities, and the glacial pace of peatland restoration.APP has acknowledged some of the shortcomings in the implementation of its pledge, but says many of the outstanding issues and complex and that it remains committed to its goal. JAKARTA — Local and international watchdogs have criticized Indonesia’s biggest pulp and paper producer for what they deem a failure to live up to its flagship zero-deforestation policy.The joint statement lambasting Asia Pulp and Paper (APP) comes on the fifth anniversary of the launch of the company’s Forest Conservation Policy (FCP) in February 2013, in which it pledged to not destroy natural forests for its pulpwood plantations.According to estimates by Eyes on the Forest, a coalition of environmental NGOs, APP had cleared more than 20,000 square kilometers (7,720 square miles) of natural forest in Indonesia in the three decades to 2010 — an area roughly the size of the U.S. state of New Jersey.Under its FCP pledge, the pulp giant sought to address the criticism by excluding timber sourced from the clearing of peatlands and rainforests. It also vowed to reduce social conflict and seek free, prior informed consent (FPIC) from communities when establishing new plantations. The policy is meant to apply to all APP operations and those of its suppliers.But the recent review by a group of 10 NGOs of how the FCP had been implemented over the past five years concluded that while APP had made some progress, the company still had a long way to go, and highlighted five key issues.The completion of PT OKI Pulp & Paper Mill in South Sumatra — which has greater production capacity than initially advertised — has raised concerns among NGOs whether APP will be able to maintain its zero deforestation commitment. Photo of an acacia plantation in various stages of harvest by Rhett A. Butler for Mongabay.1. Massive new mill threatens greater deforestationMany of the concerns revolve around APP’s massive new pulp mill in Ogan Komering Ilir (OKI) district, in South Sumatra province.Critics say they are worried the mill will boost APP’s appetite for pulpwood, compelling the company to clear more natural forest and peatlands. APP’s overall demand for wood fiber in Sumatra could rise by more than 50 percent once the OKI mill reaches its initial production capacity, stated to be 2 million tons of bleached hardwood kraft (BHK) pulp a year, according to a 2014 analysis by various NGOs.APP says the company could eventually increase the mill’s capacity to 2.8 million tons a year. But a 2017 report in Singapore’s Straits Times found the mill had been approved to produce up to 3.25 million tons of pulp a year, further stoking fears that large-scale deforestation is inevitable.If production capacity rises to APP’s stated figure, the company’s wood demand could increase by nearly 75 percent, according to the NGO report. But if the production capacity hits the higher reported figure, then APP’s demand could increase by 85 percent.The Indonesian Forum for the Environment (Walhi), the country’s biggest green NGO, says there is no way APP’s existing plantations in Sumatra and Kalimantan, the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo, can supply the OKI mill with enough fiber to produce 2.8 million tons of pulp a year.Walhi notes that the government has ordered APP to retire some of its plantations in peat areas for conservation purposes under a new peat protection regulation. The regulation bans all types of commercial plantations in areas with deep peat domes. As compensation, the Ministry of Environment and Forestry will provide non-forested areas for affected companies under a land-swap mechanism.At present, half of APP’s 800,000 hectares of concessions in South Sumatra are in peat areas, according to Hadi Jatmiko, the head of the provincial Walhi chapter.“And when the land-swap policy is enacted, there will be new conflicts in other regions,” he said at a recent press conference in Jakarta. “Because where else do we have mineral soils in Indonesia [suitable for planting]? The land-swap mechanism violates President Joko Widodo’s commitment to solve agrarian conflicts.”Elim Sritaba, the director of sustainability and stakeholder engagement at APP, says that even once the OKI mill is producing at full capacity, the company will not resort to clearing rainforests.“Because of the issue of peatland and forest fires, NGOs always think that we won’t have enough supply [to feed the OKI mill] and accuse us of eventually clearing natural forests,” she told Mongabay in an interview at her office in Jakarta. “But so far, we haven’t done that for the past five years.”And while the OKI mill could eventually produce 2.8 million tons per year, it will need substantial capital investment in machinery to upgrade from the current capacity of 2.5 million tons, Elim said.“We’re committed to our FCP and we’re well aware of the concerns [surrounding the OKI mill],” she said. If supply cannot meet capacity, she said, “then we will lower our production, or import chip.”Another concern highlighted by the NGOs in their five-year review is that APP’s conservation areas continue to be deforested by third parties. Elim acknowledged the problem, calling it APP’s biggest challenge.“That’s what we’re struggling with the most at the moment,” she said. “Our commitment is that after we protect our conservation areas, we have to at least maintain them or even improve them. So if there’s anything degraded, we have to restore them back.”However, Elim said APP had made some progress in tackling illegal logging by third parties, citing a drop in the deforestation rate to less than 1 percent of its conservation areas per year.“But we still want to curb it [further],” she said.Mouley men and a boy brandish their weapons in West Papua. Photo by Rhett Butler/Mongabay2. Lingering land conflictsThe coalition of NGOs have also slammed APP for not working fast enough to resolve outstanding land conflicts with local communities.In 2016, APP said it had resolved 42 percent of the conflicts it had with communities. By the end of 2017, the number was 43 percent. Elim attributed the slow pace of progress to the high complexity of the disputes.“We’re also committed to solving all of our conflicts through deliberation and consensus. And that takes a long time,” she said.In a public statement on its website, APP acknowledged the sluggish progress: “We would agree that we hoped to be further along in resolving conflicts. However we are also committed to resolving conflicts in a lasting way.”The NGOs also criticized the company for not being transparent about the issue, with no information on the number of different conflicts it is dealing with, how many have been resolved, or what kind of resolution process was used.Elim said APP opted not to disclose its data on conflict resolution because of the risk that it might be misused, and thus hamper the resolution process.“They asked us to open [access to] our data, but if we do that then there will be lots of parties involved [in the process] and it’ll be harder to resolve the conflicts,” she said.The NGOs said their monitoring revealed that many communities affected by APP operations in the Sumatran provinces of Riau, Jambi and South Sumatra remained locked in conflict with the company. In cases where an agreement has been reached, some questions remain with regard to the quality and implementation of the agreement, they said.In addition, many communities that lost land, forest and livelihoods to APP’s operations remain unaware the company has made commitments to respect their rights and address their grievances.In response to this criticism and to speed up the conflict-resolution process, Elim said APP had set up working groups in each region in which it had conflicts with local communities, to facilitate discussion for all stakeholders.“We’re opening up the platform for anyone who wants to get involved,” Elim said, adding that this included local communities, NGOs, academics and government representatives. “This has been ongoing for the last six months.”The working groups will focus on those conflicts deemed particularly challenging, which Elim said accounted for roughly 30 percent of the conflicts in which APP is engaged.“There’s a lot of illegal logging, around 80 percent, happening in this 30 percent,” she said.Peat forest cleared for pulp and paper in Riau, Sumatra. Photo by Rhett A. Butler3. Lack of progress in restoring degraded peatlandIn 2014, APP publicly announced its commitment restore 10,000 square kilometers (3,860 square miles) of ecosystems in Indonesia, representing an area equivalent to the total plantation area from which it sourced its pulpwood in 2013.But the NGOs say there’s still no robust plan or clear progress to implement this ambitious restoration commitment.APP says it remains committed to restoring peatlands by focusing its initial efforts on mapping its concessions that contain areas of peat. In 2013, it hired Deltares, a Dutch consultancy with expertise in wetlands issues, to map its concessions using the high-resolution laser surveying technique known as lidar.“After the initial result of the mapping came out in 2014, Deltares immediately told us which areas have to be conserved,” Elim said. “So we decided to retire 70 square kilometers [27 square miles] of our concessions in South Sumatra and Riau to save a national park located next to our concessions.”In 2016, Deltares conducted a second round of lidar mapping to get more detailed data to improve the water management of APP’s peat concessions. The results of that survey are still being analyzed by APP, Elim said.The company and its suppliers have also revised their long-term work plans as mandated by the government under the 2016 peat regulation. That regulation calls for the conservation of at least 30 percent of all peat domes — landscapes where the peat is so deep that the center is topographically higher than the edges. It also requires the conservation of areas where the peat is deeper than 3 meters (9.8 feet) and which contain high biodiversity.The Ministry of Environment and Forestry has asked pulp and paper companies, including APP and its suppliers, to revise their work plans based on the ministry’s peat map, so that areas zoned for conservation under the 2016 regulation can be taken out of contention for development and rewetted to prevent future fires.APP says its new work plans have been approved by the government. However, there are differences between the ministry’s peat map and APP’s lidar-generated map, due to the difference in resolution. The ministry’s map has a scale of 1:250,000, while APP’s more detailed map has a finer resolution of 1:50,000.To reconcile these differences, APP plans to carry out field surveys to complement the lidar mapping, Elim said.A pulpwood plantation on a peatland in Indonesia’s Riau province. Photo by Rhett A. Butler4. Misinformation about supplier tiesA recent investigation by the Associated Press uncovered ownership ties between APP and more than two dozen plantation companies linked to devastating fires and deforestation in Indonesia.The news agency used hundreds of pages of corporate records to determine that APP, through parent company Sinar Mas, had “extensive behind-the-scenes ties and significant influence” over a vast network of suppliers that the paper giant had consistently asserted were independent entities. Twenty-five of those suppliers were found to be owned by 10 individuals, including six current and two former employees of the Sinar Mas conglomerate, several of whom work in the latter’s finance department.The coalition of NGOs believe APP has misled stakeholders about the company’s relationship with the suppliers, and thus avoided accountability for Indonesia’s annual dry-season fires.Responding to the report, APP said it had never sought to mislead its stakeholders about its relationships with its suppliers. It also said it had undergone an independent assessment in 2013 and 2014 into its relationships with not only its suppliers but also several other companies that NGOs said had similar ties to APP.The assessment found that APP had business and economic influence over nine of those companies, and business transactions with 26. “And then there are three suppliers with which we had no transactions,” Elim said.A pulp and paper plantation neighboring peat forest in Riau, Sumatra in 2015. Photo by Rhett A. Butler for Mongabay.5. Lack of independent monitoringWhile APP reports its progress in the implementation of its FCP every year, the coalition of NGOs said there was no independent and credible third-party certification to verify the actual progress being made.The world’s most highly regarded forestry certification standard, the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), dissociated itself from APP in 2007, citing the deforestation carried out by the company. The coalition of NGOs called on APP to find a way to revive its association with the FSC.APP said it welcomed stakeholder involvement in monitoring the implementation of the FCP through the independent assessment of FCP progress undertaken by the Rainforest Alliance, various public consultations, formal grievance mechanisms, and stakeholder advisory forums, which are held twice a year. The next such forum is scheduled for March 22.“We are open to work with the NGOs listed in this statement, and all other interested stakeholders, on improving how we report on progress so that concerns can be put to rest,” APP said. Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored Article published by Hans Nicholas Jong Conservation, Deforestation, Environment, Forestry, Forests, Indigenous Peoples, Indonesia, Logging, Plantations, Protected Areas, Rainforest Conservation, Rainforest Deforestation, Rainforest Destruction, Rainforests, Threats To Rainforests, Tropical Forests Banner image: Deforested peatland and peat forest at sunset in Riau, Indonesia. Photo by Rhett A. Butler for Mongabay.last_img read more

Understanding bird behavior key to developing risk reduction technologies

first_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored Article published by Sue Palminteri Billions of birds collide with man-made structures and aircraft every year, which devastates bird populations and harms companies that must pay the cost of damages.John Swaddle, professor of biology at the College of William & Mary, and his team have developed two technologies to help reduce the risk of collision, the Sonic Net and the Acoustic Lighthouse.The team applied an understanding of birds’ communication and migration behaviors to develop strategies that successfully reduce collision risk. Years of studying birds and their relationship with their environment taught John Swaddle, professor of biology at the College of William & Mary, the importance of understanding animals’ instincts and behaviors when developing methods for improving human-wildlife interactions.Swaddle used what he knew about different bird species’ tendencies to create a pair of systems that minimize collisions with tall man-made structures, such as skyscrapers or wind turbines, and keep birds away from areas where their presence may be unwelcome or a hazard, such as on farmland or airports. He presented his findings in February at the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Austin, Texas.In his presentation, Swaddle introduced two different technologies, the Sonic Net and the Acoustic Lighthouse.A bald eagle surveys the landscape from a treetop. Eagles and other large birds seeking a high perch or looking down for prey below may accidentally collide with wind turbine blades. Photo credit: Martin Keus, courtesy of Quoddy Tours CC 2.0Testing Sonic Nets to remove birds from risky areasWhen working on the Sonic Net, Swaddle kept the long-standing practice of scarecrows on farmland in mind. He recognized that scarecrows only temporarily discourage birds from visiting an area because birds learn that they are not a real threat.“Birds are pretty smart, they habituate, and if the threat is not real they know and they stick around,” Swaddle said. “Those kinds of technologies just show diminishing returns, no matter how high-tech the technology gets. Birds will still habituate if you don’t take into account fundamental aspects of their behavior.”A fast-moving plane in flight, such as this China Eastern plane near London’s Heathrow airport, can confuse or overwhelm a flock of birds. Photo credit: LHR_NMOS332 CC 2.0Instead, Swaddle looked for long-term solutions. He considered noise pollution and how a higher concentration of noise in an area affects birds. Birds are attracted to quieter areas, where they have a better perception of the predatory risks. Introducing noise prompts birds to perceive greater risk, and they begin to avoid the area.Rather than introducing extraneous noise to a wide area to keep the birds away – which would then affect humans and other wildlife within the area – Swaddle and his team used parametric array speakers, which direct the artificial “pink” noise to a specific space. The speakers enabled Swaddle to direct sound to areas they wanted birds to avoid. They were also able to control the noise’s frequency, so that the sound interfered with the birds’ communication.An upright Sonic Net setup used to direct loud random pink noise toward agricultural fields to discourage particularly seed-eating birds from flocking in fields with ripening crops. Photo courtesy of: Sam McClintock, Midstream IncThey tested this approach using captive European starlings. When the Sonic Net was set at a frequency that simulated the frequency the birds use to communicate, the starlings’ vigilance immediately increased. By hindering their ability to communicate, the loud noise prevented them from being able to hear and respond to alarm calls, forcing them to remain more vigilant and forage less efficiently.In fact, when the team tried to scare the birds, they didn’t perceive the risk and react to the threat. Despite the birds’ increased vigilance, the artificial sound overwhelmed their senses. The methods were also tested in the wild, at an active airfield site in Virginia, where noise discouraged birds from occupying the area.The Sonic Net designed for airports has a low profile to minimize distraction to pilots and others. The speakers in this design direct the loud random noise toward active runways and other areas that may be risky for birds. Photo courtesy of: Sam McClintock, Midstream Inc“In an area where a lot of this introduced noise is specifically designed to prevent them from hearing each other, that’s equivalent to (humans) walking down the dark alleyway,” Swaddle said. “If we give them the choice of a place with less noise, they’ll choose to go there.”Their study, which was published in Ecological Applications, also found that the birds did not habituate to the Sonic Net method after four weeks, which is an encouraging sign that this could become a long-term solution.Common, or European, starlings like these in Northern Ireland, feed in groups on insects in fields, lawns, city parks, or airports. Their large flocks can create problems on active airport runways. Photo credit: Henry Clark CC 2.0An Acoustic Lighthouse to reduce birds’ collisions with man-made structuresSwaddle’s conference presentation also introduced the Acoustic Lighthouse method for minimizing birds’ collisions with large human-made structures. In a study published in Integrative and Comparative Biology, Swaddle and his team set out to discover why birds fly into objects that are seemingly obvious to humans and how directed sound could help the birds notice a structure before a collision.Swaddle explained that when birds are flying, especially during migration, they aren’t looking straight ahead to see where they’re going – rather, their head is angled down with their back flat. The birds’ eyes are also positioned around the side of the skull, instead of in front.“When birds are flying, their angle of view, direction of gaze, is really to the side and down,” Swaddle said. “Some birds, some of the eagles, actually have a blind spot in front of them, so they can’t see, and their attention is not where it should be.”The solution, which the team named an Acoustic Lighthouse, projects conspicuous warning sounds in front of a structure. As the bird approaches the building or wind turbine, the sound diverts the direction of the bird’s attention early enough to avoid a collision.The Acoustic Lighthouse study has not yet been tested in the wild, but Swaddle said results from his captive study look promising. When testing it with 18 domestic zebra finches, his team found that an audible sound field caused the birds to slow down in flight and alter their body and tail position in about 20 percent of cases. These birds would collide with the structure at a much lower velocity or avoid it all together.A zebra finch, native to central Australia, collects nesting material. Like starlings, they inhabit a wide range of grasslands and open woodlands. Photo credit: Gil Dekel CC 3.0Swaddle said that successful development of technologies such as Sonic Net and Acoustic Lighthouse require basic understanding of bird and other wildlife behaviors and responses.  “Without a fundamental understanding of what animals are actually doing, how they’re sensing the world and how they’re behaving, you can’t even develop these kinds of ideas,” Swaddle said. Acoustic, Alternative Energy, Birds, early warning, Energy, Human-wildlife Conflict, Technology, Wildtech FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the editor of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page.last_img read more