Field Notes: Finding Jacobo; an Andean cat captivates conservationists

first_imgFor more on the topic:Lucherini M, Palacios R, Villalba L, Iverson E. (2012) A new Strategic Plan for the conservation of the Andean cat. Oryx. Vol. 46, pp. 16-17.Novaro AJ, Walker S, Palacios R, et al. (2010) Endangered Andean cat distribution beyond the Andes in Patagonia. Cat News. Vol. 53, pp. 8-10.Villalba L, Lucherini M, Walker S, Lagos N, Cossios D, Bennett M, Huaranca J. 2016. Leopardus jacobita. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T15452A50657407.Walker S, Funes M, Heidel L, Palacios R. (2014) The Endangered Andean cat and fracking in Patagonia. Oryx. Vol. 48, pp. 14-15.Jacobo explores his release site in a remote park. A few moments later this “ghost cat”, first seen wandering a Bolivian soccer field, vanished back into the wild. Photo by Juan Reppucci / courtesy of Andean Cat Alliance Animals, Biodiversity, Biodiversity Crisis, Carnivores, Cats, Conservation, Ecology, Ecosystems, Endangered Species, Environment, Extinction, Forgotten Species, GPS, GPS tracking, Habitat, Habitat Degradation, Habitat Destruction, Habitat Loss, Happy-upbeat Environmental, Hunting, Mammals, Mass Extinction, Mining, Over-hunting, Restoration, Wildlife, Wildlife Conservation The Andean cat ranges from remote areas of central Peru to the Patagonian steppe. Perfectly adapted to extreme environments, this small feline is threatened by habitat degradation and hunting, but most of all it suffers from anonymity: it’s hard to save an animal that no one ever sees.So few of these endangered cats are scattered across such vast landscapes that even most of their advocates have never seen the species they’re trying to protect. But the conservation efforts that could save this cat could also preserve the wild places where Andean cats live.When a male Andean cat was found wandering around a soccer field, Andean Cat Alliance members agreed to forego the extraordinary opportunity to study the animal in captivity, and try instead to return “Jacobo” to the wild.Andean Cat Alliance coordinators Rocío Palacios and Lilian Villalba orchestrated the multinational volunteer release effort. Conservationists equipped Jacobo with a GPS collar and hope that tracking his travels will reveal new data about this secretive cat, considered a symbol of the Andes. Andean cats suffer from an identity crisis: with so few of them prowling around such a large mountainous Latin American landscape, most people don’t know what they look like. Photo courtesy of Andean Cat AllianceWhen an Andean cat (Leopardus jacobita) suddenly showed up in the middle of a synthetic soccer field in Bolivia, the wild feline was far from anywhere that should have been home. Not knowing what else to do, local people put the Endangered cat in a birdcage to hand it over to authorities.How the housecat-sized feline ended up such a distance from its usual haunts — high in the mountains of Chile, Argentina, Bolivia and Peru — is still a mystery. However, the extraordinary circumstance gave conservationists a chance to learn about an animal they were dedicated to saving, but had rarely seen.It isn’t easy to find an Andean cat. Only 1,378 adults exist, with the small cats scattered over more than 150,000 square kilometers (roughly 600,000 square miles) of highlands from northeastern Peru to Patagonia, according to the first population numbers published last year on the IUCN red list website. This single population estimate is one of the biggest successes of the Andean Cat Alliance because estimating the population numbers for such a low density species is a huge challenge, says Rocío Palacios, biologist and co-coordinator of the organization, which has teams of volunteers dedicated to protecting this wild feline across its whole range.Only 1,378 adult Andean cats exist, with the small cats scattered across more than 150,000 square kilometers (roughly 600,000 square miles) of highlands from northeastern Peru to Patagonia. Photo courtesy of Andean Cat AllianceThe paw prints of an Andean Cat. Sightings of these Endangered felines are so rare that information is usually gleaned from scat and camera trap images. Photo courtesy of Andean Cat AllianceAlthough the cats live in remote areas, at elevations up to 12,000 feet, their habitat is rich with deposits of coal, oil and minerals such as tin, silver, and gold, so the reclusive feline increasingly competes with the mining industry for territory. They’re also threatened by local hunters who, in an effort to protect livestock from larger predators, often kill the small cats, too.The thick-coated wild cats also suffer from an identity crisis. With so few prowling such a large landscape, most people don’t even know what they look like. If spotted, Andean cats may be mistaken for the pampas cat that lives in overlapping habitat. With such a low profile, it can be tough to generate support for conservation.“This is more than saving a cat,” says Palacios. “This animal is a symbol of the Andes. When we talk about saving this cat, we’re talking about saving an entire landscape.”For many conservationists, time spent with Jacobo counts as their first sighting of an Andean cat. Rocío Palacios looks on here, as Jacobo undergoes anesthesia in preparation for a veterinary examination. “Now, even when I’m not directly involved in tracking Jacobo, I’m always trying to find out where he is; he’s like a kid that goes to study abroad, everybody is checking to see how he is doing,” says Palacios. Photo courtesy of Andean Cat AllianceMongabay: What motivates you to save an animal you never see?Palacios: I get that question a lot. At first, that was really hard to answer because I couldn’t understand this feeling that you need to see the animal that you are studying to be able to work with that animal.I’ve always loved to study carnivores but where I live, in Argentina, there are no big lions. We have smaller cats and they are always on the move, so it’s really hard to find them. So, it’s detective work: I look for signs and tracks to deduce what the cats have been doing, how they interact with each other. From gathering evidence, we construct the life history. But it’s not just about the cat. The cat is a symbol of what I’m working for.One of the most powerful experiences in my life happened the first time I went to the Andes, looking for the cat and collecting scat. I was sitting on a rock and couldn’t see any sign of humans — no people, no roads, not another human thing — in any direction. Even though I had been going to the mountains since I was a kid, I had never before experienced that feeling of completely blending with nature.Conservation can be a really challenging profession; a lot of times it looks like the battle is already lost. The Andean cat is like my secret weapon, a symbol of that memory of totally blending into nature.Photo traps provide much of the current information about Andean cats. Tracking collars that work well on this small cat are hard to find. VHF signals, for example, are not the most effective tool in the rugged mountain terrain, where, if a cat is sleeping in a cave, you could be standing right above it and not receive a signal. Photo courtesy of Andean Cat AllianceMongabay: What have conservationists learned from Jacobo?Palacios: Finding Jacobo was a powerful thing. The researchers and professionals who volunteer for the AGA (Alianza Gato Andino is the Spanish name for the Andean Cat Alliance) have worked together for a long time and we are always facing questions about the cat’s life history: How many kittens do they have? What is the breeding season? What is their phsiology? These are basic questions that we cannot answer because we’ve never had one in captivity to study. Before Jacobo, we didn’t even know the composition of the cat’s blood.Immediately after Jacobo was found, it was determined the best place to keep him was at the Vesty Pakos State Zoo in La Paz [Bolivia]. They made special enclosures for him, so he wouldn’t get used to humans, and took very good care of him — he even gained a couple of pounds while he was there.An inter-institutional committee was formed, organized by AGA, to follow up on everything related to Jacobo’s wellbeing. We planned to release him after the winter, when the weather wouldn’t be so harsh. Then he started to show signs of stress in captivity — a giant alert sign that we needed to release him very quickly. It began to feel like an emergency.Even though we all wanted the same thing, it was hard to work together because people were in different countries and everyone has a “day job” to pay the bills. Also, the release process itself was complex. For example, we needed a blood test to make sure Jacobo was healthy before his release, but there was no lab in Bolivia that could do this, so the sample had to be sent to a specialist in Chile. This required special permits in a short timeframe. After the results came back okay, we needed trucks, release experts and a collar to track him. All of this costs money and — except for the trucks — the AGA financed most of these needed services.Jacobo leaves his cat carrier. Photo by Juan Reppucci/courtesy of Andean Cat AllianceThe tracking technology is not well developed for small cats and you can’t just custom-order it for one individual. Only 5 Andean cats have ever been collared and we haven’t collected nearly enough information from them. The first cat, named Sombrita, was collared in Bolivia and about six months later she was killed by a local person who had issues with the protected area recently established in the region. Later, more cats were collared in Argentina, but each one had some kind of problem; the collars fell off too quickly or just stopped recording. There is just not proper technology developed for this kind of species, so most of our data has been from scat and camera traps.Finally, everything came together and we released Jacobo in Sajama National Park, in Bolivia. After the first few days of tracking his radio signal, he began venturing farther away from the site.Mongabay: What are the next steps for Andean cat conservation?Palacios: Our immediate goal is to stop the hunting. When I was finishing my research in northern Patagonia, more than half of the records for that dissertation work came from dead cats. That’s more than 20 dead cats, a huge number for a low-density species.Part of our mitigation program in Chile and Argentina includes training guard dogs to keep predators away from goat herds in the [mountain] communities. That way the small cats won’t get killed along with the mountain lions, which are the real livestock predators. We want to expand that program as quickly as possible.Another part of that program brings artists to schools where they help children paint murals that show the Andean cat and his important place in the landscape. In these isolated areas, the schools are a gathering place for the community, so everyone sees these conservation messages.We also need pure research at the population genetics level. It may sound boring, but I have a strong suspicion there may be two subspecies of Andean cats, and we need to know [whether that is true or not] to adjust our conservation actions.Jacobo in close up, just moments after his release. Photo by Juan Reppucci / courtesy of Andean Cat AllianceNext year, we also want to start a monitoring network in protected areas. This was my main project in previous fieldwork. If this is well applied, the Andean cat becomes part of the action plan for protected areas. That works as a conservation tool because it helps detect sudden changes in population trends.And of course, there is Jacobo. We need to keep following him. He was released in a very remote site, in a park that straddles Bolivia and Chile. When we went to the field to look for [radio collar] signals in October, November, and December, there was a far away signal once, and then never again. We are trying to arrange an overflight to look for him one more time before the radio battery dies.Even though it’s disappointing not to know exactly where he is, it’s a good thing that Jacobo moved away from his release site, looking for a proper place to make his own territory. He is out there somewhere and, because every individual matters, we know we did the best thing possible by releasing him.Jacobo is a lot more than just another cat for us; he’s a symbol of the Andes. Like a living being needs a soul, the soul of the Andes is represented by Jacobo. Article published by Glenn Scherer Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredlast_img read more

Anthraxcarrying flies follow monkeys through the forest

first_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Anthrax-carrying flies follow monkeys through the forest Nearly 12% of the flies carried sylvatic anthrax, which causes more than 38% of wildlife deaths in rainforest ecosystems. The researchers hypothesize that flies could be at least partially responsible for the persistent spread of the disease, which is transmitted by a different microbe from the type of anthrax that infects people. A few flies also carried the bacterium that causes yaws, a disfiguring skin disease that affects both humans and animals.Next, the team will explore whether flies follow groups of hunter-gatherer humans around, and whether these fly behaviors have caused primates to change their own behavior over time. Although mangabeys are known to use tools, researchers have not yet observed them wielding fly swatters.*Correction, 12 July, 3:55 p.m.: The original picture that ran with this item was of a chimpanzee, not a monkey. The image has been updated. By Eva FrederickJul. 12, 2019 , 1:30 PM Humans aren’t the only primates flies follow around. The insects tail monkeys, too, according to a new study, and they can carry deadly pathogens such as anthrax.Researchers followed a group of approximately 60 wild sooty mangabeys (their relative, the gray mangabey, is pictured), small furry monkeys with light-colored eyelids and long slender arms and legs, in the tropical rainforest of Taï National Park in Ivory Coast. They caught flies within the group of mangabeys and at distances up to 1 kilometer away. The researchers found about eight to 11 times more flies inside the group than in the rest of the forest. The same was true for three different groups of chimps.Next, the team gently dabbed nail polish on nearly 1600 flies to find out whether the same group of insects followed the mangabeys, or whether the primates attracted different flies as they moved through the trees. The marked flies kept turning up around the mangabeys, even 12 days later when the group had moved more than 1 kilometer away, the team reports in Molecular Ecology. Email Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Mark Bowler/Science Source Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwelast_img read more