Activism, Agriculture, Anthropology, Community Development, Conservation, Corporate Role In Conservation, Deforestation, Economics, Environment, environmental justice, Environmental Refugees, Forest People, Forests, Fragmentation, Gold Mining, Governance, Government, Human Rights, Hunting, Indigenous Cultures, Indigenous Groups, Indigenous Peoples, Indigenous Rights, Infrastructure, Insects, Land Conflict, Land Grabbing, Land Rights, Logging, Mining, Montane Forests, Old Growth Forests, Palm Oil, Poverty, Poverty Alleviation, Primary Forests, Rainforest Agriculture, Rainforest Deforestation, Rainforest Logging, Rainforest People, Rainforests, Resource Conflict, Social Conflict, Social Justice, Tropical Forests Article published by John Cannon The environmental humanities pull together the tools of the anthropologist and the biologist.Anthropologist Eben Kirksey has studied the impact of mining, logging and infrastructure development on the Mee people of West Papua, Indonesia, revealing the inequalities that often underpins who benefits and who suffers as a result of natural resource extraction.Kirksey reports that West Papuans are nurturing a new form of nationalism that might help bring some equality to environmental change. Indonesian New Guinea holds some of the largest remnants of old-growth tropical forest on the planet. Yet the region faces increasing pressure to share its riches with the rest of the world. Mining companies have dug for gold and copper, leaving scars visible from space. Loggers have razed rainforest and built highways into previously remote areas. And with Indonesia as a whole producing half the world’s palm oil, the hunt for new plantation sites threatens to fragment what’s left of the region’s standing forest.These development projects have taken place as Indonesia has divided the territory, splitting the western half of the island of New Guinea into West Papua and Papua in the 2000s.Map of West Papua and Papua (in red) in the Indonesia-controlled part of the island of New Guinea. Map courtesy of Eben KirkseyEben Kirksey, an anthropologist at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia, has spent nearly two decades investigating what the push for natural resources has meant for the people of Indonesian New Guinea. His own discipline has left him uniquely positioned to dig deeper into the crossroads of changes to the ecological environment and to our ways of life.“Anthropology is the most humanistic of the sciences, and the most scientific of the humanities,” Kirksey said, quoting cultural anthropologist Alfred Louis Kroeber.But Kirksey is also a leader in the emerging discipline known as the environmental humanities, drawing from the tools of both anthropologists and biologists.Mongabay spoke with Kirksey to discuss his recent article, published in the journal South Atlantic Quarterly, which looks how the balance of power metes out – often inequitably – the consequences and benefits of harvesting natural resources and of the ensuing changes to the environment. In his essay, he explores how the Mee people of the village of Unipo adapt to clear-cutting of the forest that had been their home for centuries, and the ways in which the construction of a road, originally intended to shuttle timber from the hinterlands, set different parts of society on a collision course.During the conversation, Kirksey also delves into current politics and how a more constructive, nascent form of nationalism arising in Papuan communities might bring some equality to the sharing of nature’s largesse.Collecting mushrooms in the forests of West Papua. Photo and caption by Eben KirkseyMongabay: Can you explain what environmental humanities is and how it’s emerging as a discipline right now?Eben Kirksey: Basically, biologists used to study the domain of nature, and anthropologists, which is my own discipline, used to study culture. Folks in the environmental humanities are interested in the intersection of the two, where nature and culture meet. People are studying the dynamics of power, how political and economic systems influence that nature-culture dynamic, and asking this question of who benefits when species meet. We are thinking about who lives and dies amidst encounters amongst humans and other kinds of life – how clear cutting a rainforest or having an industrial project impinges upon particular communities.Mongabay: In your essay, you talk about how these dynamics affect individuals’ lives but then also the global balance of power.Eben Kirksey: Yeah, it’s a really exciting moment because a lot of people are using these new tools to follow global assemblages [and] be really specific in tracing how a commodity moves, for example, through pipelines or through transnational shipping systems [and how they] change people and ecological communities all along the way. A lot of folks are also looking at chemicals on a global scale that are in the atmosphere, like carbon, that are changing the very possibilities of life on Earth.I think we’re getting increasingly specific in terms of how we link things up. What sorts of lives and deaths matter in this world that I inhabit? What sorts of chemicals impinge upon my existence? What sort of consumer choices do I make that are shaping this world that I’m creating here but also the global assemblages that let my life exist in this particular moment?Mongabay: You talk about the differences you observed between your first arrival in the late 1990s and your return in 2015. What was most striking?Eben Kirksey: I’ve been back a number of times since the late ’90s. I think one different thing was just a real sense of hope and possibility [then]. On the heels of the resignation of this dictator, President Suharto, who had been in office for 32 years, there was this real sense of political possibility. He left office in May ’98, and I got there a couple of weeks later.Within Indonesia, this archipelago of some 12,000 islands, there was a sense that a democratic reform project could be actualized. In 1999, East Timor got independence. West Papua had high hopes that they would get independence with momentum building toward the year 2000, the new millennium, as a new president took office in Indonesia.I was visiting rural places – spaces by the side of the road that had only emerged recently in the last few years as a logging company clear cut the forest and built a road connecting the lowlands with the highlands. A lot of extraction projects were going on, and there was also a sense of hope and possibility with development projects, even as people were in vulnerable and precarious situations.Over the next couple of decades, the vulnerabilities and precarities that people were experiencing intensified at the same time that this sense of political possibility started to evaporate. As those hopes were dashed, people started to still hold onto dreams of getting liberated from this military occupation, amidst the everyday violence, amidst targeted killings of leaders, but also just everyday killings like the one that I describe in the article – teenagers basically getting assaulted by the police with very little pretext.Against the backdrop of that ongoing violence, I think that hope for a change that resolves all of this politically, the possibility of that political outcome, is increasingly elusive.Oge Bage Mee children washing sweet potatoes. Photo by Eben KirkseyMongabay: In the essay, you talk about the fragility of happiness in a touching story about the young people you spent time with there. Later, you talk about the fragility of that moment. Was that a way of capturing that sense of possibility and then what’s happened since?Eben Kirksey: I spent many of my days just foraging for edible insects with children who learned that in clear-cut rainforests, you have a proliferation of these delightfully tasty treats. This was a sort of happiness amidst tragedy, right? Yeah, I did find, as with a lot of forms of happiness, it was fragile, and this space of hope was destroyed in the coming years.Mongabay: When you returned, you found that several of those kids died of malaria. That’s a poignant example of how those changes to ways of life and to the environment around us affect us.Eben Kirksey: When I came back a few years later, a lot of these young children were dead. Many people had just fled. Often, when there’s a disease outbreak, people just disperse. In fact, [the strategy that] let these people live with malaria was being constantly on the move. Depending on the mosquito species, from the time they bite someone infected with malaria to re-infecting a new person, that’s usually about 30 or 60 days. If you’re constantly on the move, if you’re living in these bivouacs in the forest and shifting your location, you’re not going to get exposed to malaria epidemics.This local tragedy is situated in a national context where Indonesia has used public health measures to protect certain people from malaria and while letting other people die. If you travel to Bali, for example, an international tourist destination, or if you travel to Jakarta, you’re going to be protected from malaria.This Edage Bage woman is wearing a “t-shirt” that she has fashioned out of tree-bark string. This image shows how the Edage Bage have taken ideas from the outside world and made them locally distinct. Photo and caption by Eben KirkseyMongabay: In the essay, you discuss the construction of the Trans-Papua Highway and about how it brings different social groups together. Can you talk about the story you used to illustrate that?Eben Kirksey: Basically, a young man was shot dead by the side of the road – Yoteni Agapa, whose dog was killed by a speeding car. This group of boys got mad when the dog was killed and the driver sped away, so they instituted an impromptu road block and started asking other cars for money. [The Trans-Papua Highway] was built by a logging company across indigenous land that didn’t formally pay any of these people for that right to cross their land.This acute incident of a dog getting killed, coupled with longstanding senses of social inequality [and] economic injustice connected to this road, made the boys start stopping cars and saying, ‘Hey, our dog was killed. We’re mad. Give us five bucks.’ The amount of money they asked for was basically the equivalent of a local meal at a nearby food stall.Those drivers got mad. They went back to local security forces and told [them] what was going on, that there was this roadblock happening, and the security forces came back and started shooting the children. A number of the children sustained wounds and managed to run away. Yoteni Agapa was shot repeatedly and then his body was mutilated after he was killed.Mongabay: When you and your colleagues reported the incident to the UN, “Power continued to function predictably,” you write. What did you mean by that?Eben Kirksey: I studied this incident in collaboration with some regional human rights defenders. We wrote up a short allegation to the United Nations [and] filed this with the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions. And it was filed away. It exists in an archive somewhere, and nothing happened.There are decisions being made that certain kinds of people don’t matter as much as others. The fact that a young black boy can get shot dead by the side of the road in West Papua, or in Ferguson, [Missouri,] or in many other sites in Africa or Europe, the fact that these killings are happening all the time – there aren’t adequate international legal institutions for dealing with this. I think it’s something that needs to be interrogated on a global level.Mongabay: Can you relate that to what you’ve seen in Indonesian New Guinea and perhaps the difference between the nationalism you talk about in your first book, Freedom in Entangled Worlds, and the nationalism we’re seeing globally now?Eben Kirksey: Yeah, I think there’s a return to a certain form of nationalism that is dangerous in the United States right now. In contrast, my first book, about West Papua, is all about rediscovering the promise of nationalism.If you look at the long history of colonization, the nations of early modern Europe were formed through the exploitation of India, Africa, Southeast Asia, [and] the Americas. We are at a moment where people in the United States could reclaim the positive aspects of nationalism. In the case of West Papua, I found people harboring these dreams, not of this return to the tribe, this return to a place where it would just be Papuans and all the outsiders would just be killed or expelled, but a post-colonial situation where they’re learning to live more responsibly with their global entanglements.Mongabay: How is that playing out in Indonesian New Guinea?Eben Kirksey: There’s this big U.S. gold mine there called Freeport McMoRan. To paint it with a very broad brush, they’re basically stealing the natural resources of West Papua. The largest gold deposit known is in West Papua, and that wealth is being taken away, channeled to the Indonesian government in the form of taxes, to this U.S. corporation, which is making profits and distributing the gold around the world so that we have wires in our cellphones and computers as well as wedding rings.A picture of the open-pit Freeport McMoRan mine, taken by an astronaut in June 2005 at an elevation of 353.7 kilometers (191 nautical miles). The hole is about 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) wide. Photo ISS011-E-9620 courtesy of NASA Earth ObservatoryThe West Papuans [are] not envisioning a world where they’re going to claim all that wealth for themselves and say that nobody else deserves to have a share. Papuans want to channel the theft of that natural resource into a gift, with all the obligations that gift giving entails. When you give someone a gift, very often, especially in a place like Melanesia, certain things are expected in return.When the U.S. has a USAID program or the Soviet aid programs in the Middle East or Afghanistan, this is shaping foreign policy. Papuans want to give away their gold as a gift. They want to make sure that the people of Indonesia are fed. They’re imagining a new ethical world order where nationalism isn’t done away with, but very clear ethical principles inform how this excess wealth, how the valuable things on their land, might be redistributed.Mongabay: Is there anything else you would like to add?Eben Kirksey: In concluding about West Papua, I would like to say it’s an incredibly vibrant, beautiful, amazingly dynamic place. As people often hear about the ongoing genocide, the political problems, that fact is lost. There are all sorts of surprising encounters you can have there. It is still, outside of the Amazon, one of the largest undisturbed tracts of rainforest in the world. This is very quickly getting destroyed by oil palm plantations.I’d just like to draw people’s attention to this remarkably beautiful, dynamic and surprising part of the world.CITATIONS:Kirksey, E. (2017). Lively Multispecies Communities, Deadly Racial Assemblages, and the Promise of Justice. South Atlantic Quarterly, 116(1), 195-206.Kirksey, E. (2012). Freedom in entangled worlds: West Papua and the architecture of global power. Duke University Press.Editor’s note: This interview has been edited for clarity and length.Correction (Mar 1, 2017): we changed references to “West Papua” to “Indonesian New Guinea” in the introduction to better distinguish between West Papua Province and Western New Guinea, which is the half of New Guinea controlled by Indonesia. Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page.
20 20 20 12. Middlesbrough should sign Alex Pritchard – Boro had the toughest defence in the Championship last season, but while they were a challenge to score against, they found scoring the toughest compared to their top six opponents. Manager Aitor Karanka could therefore be targeting attacking players. With limited top flight experience, Pritchard, who has come through Tottenham Hotspurs academy, would be a risk but perhaps one worth taking. 4. Chelsea should sign Alvaro Morata – The Blues need competition for Diego Costa up top. Last season illustrated just how weak their attacking options were, and Antonio Conte will need to address this. Morata has had his buy-back clause activated by Real Madrid and Chelsea could make an offer with the La Liga giants looking to sell on for a profit. 3. Burnley should sign Jonjo Shelvey – Burnley have their critics ahead of their return to the Premier League, despite their superb season in the Championship to seal promotion. One area that requires addressing this summer is who can fill the void left by Joey Barton. Shelvey, similar in style to the midfielder, could be the man up for the job. 16. Swansea City should sign Nabil Bentaleb – Swansea were a rejuvenated side under Francesco Guidolin in the second half of the season, but the Italian will know work needs doing in the summer transfer window. Bentaleb, struggling for playing time at White Hart Lane, could add some much needed grit and quality to the Swans midfield, perhaps filling the role played by Jonjo Shelvey in the 2014/15 season. 20 19. West Bromwich Albion should sign Andros Townsend – The Baggies have become a dull unit in the Premier League, almost void of ideas in the final third. Tony Pulis should therefore be eyeing attacking players and Townsend, who may be eyeing a move to a Premier League side after Newcastles relegation, would liven up his sides attack. 2. Bournemouth should sign Tomas Kalas – Despite a bright start to life in the top flight, the Cherries began to struggle as the season progressed. Next season could be a difficult one for the club and they would be wise to address their defence. Middlesbrough are reportedly keen on signing Kalas on a permanent deal, but with the newly-promoted side yet to agree a move for the Chelsea defender, Bournemouth could capitalise. 8. Leicester City should sign Christian Benteke – As Premier League champions, Claudio Ranieri should be looking to pull off a major deal this summer. While Bentekes reputation has fallen at Anfield, much of his struggle can be attributed to Liverpools style of play not suiting the centre forward. His hold up play could see him slot straight into the Foxes team, allowing the likes of Jamie Vardy and Riyad Mahrez to play off him. 17. Tottenham Hotspur should sign Michy Batshuayi – Spurs were outstanding last season, despite their blip at the end of the campaign. Mauricio Pochettino has a strong squad, but perhaps one area that needs addressing is his options up top. Batshuayi is considered one of the finest young forwards in Europe currently and would provide fine competition to Harry Kane. 20 1. Arsenal should sign Alexandre Lacazette – check out our guide in full to the one key player every Premier League club should sign this summer by clicking the arrow above, right – Most Arsenal fans will probably tell you they need far more than one key signing this summer. Perhaps a new centre back or a defensive midfielder. But one position that really needs addressing is their striker. Olivier Giroud seems short of the quality required and Lacazette would be a welcome addition not to mention a more realistic target than Karim Benzema or Gonzalo Higuain. 20 20 10. Manchester City should sign Paul Pogba – Pep Guardiola, as with Jose Mourinho, will have his eyes on a major signing this summer. The man the Spaniard should be considering is Pogba. Despite yet to really convince for France this summer, he remains one of the best midfielders in Europe and his arrival would worry Citys rivals further. 14. Stoke City should sign Georginio Wijnaldum – Despite having a strong attacking unit on paper, Mark Hughes side disappointed in the final third last season. Hell want to address such concerns over the summer and may be keen to bring new players in to liven up his attack. Wijnaldum expressed glimpses of his ability on Tyneside and will believe hes superior to that of a Championship player. 7. Hull City should sign Phil Jones – Steve Bruce has a number of players with experience in the Premier League at his disposal, and he could be interested in adding more to his squad. Jones, whose future at Manchester United is unclear, might welcome an offer away from Old Trafford even if it isn’t glamorous. 18. Watford should sign Robbie Brady – Brady starred for the Republic of Ireland, helping his country reach the last 16 of the Euro 2016 finals. He is likely to be in demand and with the Hornets in need of inspiration after a demoralising six months, he could be an excellent addition to the squad. Whats more, Watford have made a habit of heading overseas for their transfer business over the last few seasons, and fans would welcome a home-grown player arriving at Vicarage Road. 13. Southampton should sign Ruben Loftus-Cheek – Chelsea fans will be devastated at the prospect of Loftus-Cheek leaving Stamford Bridge, but if he wishes for regular first-team football, he may have to do just that. Capable of playing a deeper role and as a no.10, the Chelsea midfielder could fill the void left by Victor Wanyama, who has sealed a move to White Hart Lane, and Sadio Mane, who is expected to join Liverpool. 6. Everton should sign Asmir Begovic – With Tim Howard leaving Goodison Park and question marks remaining over whether Joel Robles should be the clubs no.1, new manager Ronald Koeman may be targeting a goalkeeper this summer. Begovic, who proved he is far from finished when called upon during Thibaut Courtois injury at the end of last year, should come cheap and would welcome the offer of guaranteed first team football. 20 15. Sunderland should sign Andre Ayew – Reports claim Ayews future at the Liberty Stadium is uncertain and the Black Cats could capitalise on his situation. Jermain Defoe aside, there was a lack of goal threat from Sam Allardyces men and the Ghana winger, who scored 12 last season, could slot straight into the Sunderland starting line-up. 20 9. Liverpool should sign Blaise Matuidi – Liverpool have plenty of attacking options and Jurgen Klopp should be considering his defensive options. The Reds are missing a dominant midfielder a player superior to Jordan Henderson. Matuidi, a key player for Paris Saint-Germain and France, could fulfil this role. 5. Crystal Palace should sign Andre Gray – Gray finished top scorer of the Championship last season and Burnley will be doing all they can to keep hold of the forward. An offer from Alan Pardew, though, could be difficult for the 25-year-old to turn down. The Eagles were short of fire power last season and could be looking for a replacement to the underwhelming Connor Wickham. 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 It’s that time of the year when clubs start to strengthen in preparation for the incoming window.New and old managers will be taking a look at their current squad, wondering which area is in need of work.Arsenal might be searching for a centre forward to compete with Olivier Giroud, while Manchester United could be scouring Europe for a marquee acquisition.But who should your club sign this summer?Check out talkSPORT’s guide to the one key player every Premier League club should be looking to sign ahead of the 2016/17 season by viewing the slideshow above.Disagree? Comment below! 20 11. Manchester United should sign Zlatan Ibrahimovic – This deal should be one the club are working tirelessly to finalise. The Swedish centre forward is out of contract at Paris Saint-Germain and eyeing an adventure elsewhere. He is exactly the statement signing Jose Mourinho craves in his first summer in charge of United. 20 20 20. West Ham United should sign Wilfried Bony – Speculation on the Hammers suggests the clubs board are eyeing a marquee signing this summer ahead of their move to the Olympic Stadium. A centre forward could be a priority and Bony, who they have been linked to before, could be a perfect addition to Slaven Bilics squad. Manchester City may be looking to sell, with reports of Nolito moving to the Etihad.
The Netherlands is the first country to share missing-children appeals using ATM screens.AMBER Alerts are now being displayed on more than 300 cash machines across Holland.Compatible automatic tellers can issue two kinds of warnings: a Dutch-specific Vermist Kind Alert and an AMBER Alert. The latter is more serious, used when a child’s life is believed to be in immediate danger.AdChoices广告Quick response is vital for both.“When an AMBER Alert or Vermist Kind Alert is issued, we need the help of the public to find the child as quickly as possible,” according to Izanne de Wit, head of the missing person’s bureau of the Dutch Police.“That’s why we are happy that these alerts will now also be displayed on ATMs, adding to the list of means we already have,” she said in a statement. “Sharing the missing child’s information on these screens helps us to expand our reach even further.”The machines are located in multiple airports, including Schiphol and Rotterdam, as well as in large shopping malls and near popular tourist attractions.“We are very pleased with this new and innovative partnership and we hope other countries will follow this great example,” Frank Hoen, founder and chairman of AMBER Alert Europe, said.AMBER Alerts originated in the US in 1996, in response to the kidnap and murder of nine-year-old Amber Hagerman.Messages requesting the public’s help in finding a missing child are distributed via radio and television stations, text message, cable TV, e-mail, traffic-condition signs, and electronic billboards. Information is also relayed through Google, Bing, and Facebook.The system has been adopted across the world, in countries like Australia, Canada, Ecuador, Malaysia, and Mexico; there are alert systems active in 20 European nations, including Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and the UK.More on Geek.com:Programmer Finds ATM Flaw That Let Him Withdraw $1M in CashThe Netherlands Now Has the World’s First Recycled-Plastic Bike PathStudy: Children, Not Adults, Easily Influenced by Robots