When the hunting grounds of pumas overlap with those of other top predators, such as wolves, bears and jaguars, pumas are often the losers, a new study has found.The findings from the study, a review of existing scientific literature, are especially important given how pumas are still being intensively hunted over much of their range in a bid to reduce conflicts with people and livestock, researchers say.In some puma habitats where wolves and brown bears are recolonizing and recovering, wildlife managers need to be cautious about hunting limits for pumas, the authors write. The large, secretive puma (Puma concolor) may be at the top of its food chain, but it is not always the king of its territory.Native to the Americas, the puma, also called the mountain lion, cougar, catamount or panther, often shares its habitat with several other top predators, such as wolves, bears, coyotes and jaguars. But when the hunting grounds of these predators overlap, the puma is often the loser, researchers report in a new study published in PeerJ.By reviewing the scientific literature on competition between pumas and other predators, researchers have found that wolves, grizzly bears, black bears and jaguars often dominate pumas. In fact, pumas are subordinate to at least one other top carnivore in 47.5 percent of their range across North and South America. In turn, pumas seem to be dominant only over coyotes and maned wolves.“I recognized the hole in my own understanding of mountain lions — I knew so little about their relationships with other animals,” said lead author Mark Elbroch, lead scientist for puma program at the global wild cat conservation organization Panthera. “A review seemed the ideal way to search for and find research on the subject.”Pumas are often in competition with other top predators. And they don’t always win. Picture by Panthera.Among the top predators, wolves appear to have the strongest influence on mountain lions, dominating pumas on most encounters, Elbroch’s team found. This is likely because wolves hunt in packs and outnumber the generally solitary puma. Wolves often harass pumas, the authors write, and are also known to kill them.Some studies also show that wherever the ranges of pumas and wolves overlap, pumas tend to avoid open areas and restrict their movements to forests and steep areas where they can easily escape from wolves. Pumas also sometimes switch their prey when living alongside wolves.The interactions between grizzly and black bears and pumas is less studied, the researchers found. But the studies that exist show that bears often displace pumas from their kills. So pumas not only lose the food they hunted, but have to spend additional time and energy hunting more prey.Bears taking meals from pumas. Video by Mark Elbroch/Panthera.A young male mountain lion (follow the red arrow) in northwest Wyoming just pushed off his kill by the wolf in the foreground. Photo by Mark Elbroch/Panthera.The study’s findings are especially important given how pumas are still being intensively hunted over much of their range in a bid to reduce conflicts with people and livestock, Elbroch said.Hunting has wiped out mountain lions from the entire eastern half of North America, except for a small population in Florida. Today, pumas occur in parts of western North America, and Central and South America, where they continue to be hunted. In some of these areas, where wolves and bears are recolonizing and recovering, wildlife managers need to be cautious about hunting limits for pumas, the authors write.“New wolves mean life for mountain lions just got a little bit harder,” Elbroch said. “So increasing pressure on mountain lions is the exact opposite of what our review suggests is needed.“Ecosystems are complex, and we must be cautious,” he added. “When we hunt species already affected by numerous other species, we may unintentionally cause rapid declines in that species. To manage wildlife effectively, we must first understand how they fit into their ecosystems.”However, there is a dearth of studies looking at interactions between pumas and other apex carnivores, Elbroch said. And the available research does not go deep enough to link the effects of competition on puma survival.“It’s tough being a mountain lion, which only makes their resilience and ability to live among and in between us that much more remarkable,” Elbroch said. “They continue to amaze me.”Banner image of a mountain lion by Rhett A. Butler.Citation:Elbroch and Kusler (2018), Are pumas subordinate carnivores, and does it matter? PeerJ 6:e4293; DOI 10.7717/peerj.4293 Animals, Bears, Biodiversity, Conservation, Endangered Species, Environment, Forests, Green, Hunting, Mammals, Mountains, Over-hunting, Research, Wildlife, Wolves Article published by Shreya Dasgupta Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored
Travellers making a last-minute decision to head home for Christmas will be harder hit this year after a whopping 36 per cent increase on last year’s best discount fares, newly released statistics reveal.The December domestic airfares index compiled by the Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics shows airfares in Australia have risen across all classes during the year. Business class fares are 6.5 per cent higher than 12 months ago, while the smallest increase — 3.3 per cent — is in the restricted economy category.The 36 per cent increase in best discount fares puts the index at its highest level since 2007.Airfares traditionally rise over the Christmas period as a big increase in demand allows airlines to effectively boost average prices by changing the mix of seats in each fare category. Any cheaper seats are also quickly snapped ahead of time, forcing people who book late to pay higher fares.In addition, Australian carriers have been keeping strict controls on capacity growth after the heady surge caused by the so-called capacity wars that drove prices down to unrealistically low levels. Virgin, for example, reported that capacity was down 0.5 per cent and sectors flown fell 2.3 per cent for quarter ending September 30 compared to the same period last year.A spokesman for the bureau said that the Christmas spike in fares had been lower in the previous two to three years and it was now back the kind of levels previously seen.“When we were analysing it, my feeling was it’s more about the previous couple of years than it was about this year,’’ the spokesman said, noting that the day of travel also had an impact.The bureau’s index is constructed from a monthly survey of airline and internet booking sites for travel on Australia’s top 70 routes on the last Thursday of each month.It is a price index of the lowest available fare in each class, weighted over selected route and including taxes and charges, rather than a measure of average fares actually paid by passengers.However, it gives an indication of fare movements and how they compare to a baseline set in July, 2003.The figures in all three categories are still below the 2003 levels.
Related Posts Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… Copyright. Innovation. Free speech. These firestarting issues and the relationship between creation, law and technology were the topics in a Sunday panel that just may have been the sleeper hit of SXSW.Speakers included Andrew Bridges, partner at Fenwick & West LLP, Margot Kaminski, the executive director at the Information Society Project at Yale Law School, Wendy Seltzer, policy counsel at the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), Derek Khanna, a former Republican Study Committee staffer, and surprise guest Ben Huh, the chief executive of Cheezburger. All have been influential in speaking out against and litigating civil liberty cases pertaining to ACTA, SOPA and PIPA.After the panel, ReadWrite spoke one-on-one with Bridges, whose 30-year career has included representing clients like Google and MasterCard in cases involving copyright, trademark and unfair competition. Bridges spoke on the lessons stemming from the hour-long panel:ReadWrite: You have lots of criticisms of the copyright system. Can you explain your objections? Andrew Bridges: Copyright is elevated to a level of importance in our society and our politics that it does not seem to deserve. If you actually took some copyright policies and extended them into other arenas, the consequences would seem absurd. Let’s say we decided to apply the Six Strikes principal. Say you send out one of those mailers for a subscription to Time Magazine. And you check the box that says bill me later. Let’s say that they start sending you Time Magazine, and after 2 or 3 issues they send you the bill, and you never pay. But in the meantime you have 6 or 8 issues before they cut you off for not paying. My proposal is let’s adopt Six Strikes and knock somebody off the postal system. You don’t pay for it, you don’t get to use the postal service any longer. Or let’s say somebody blows through a toll plaza 6 times, does that mean you don’t ever use the highways anymore? In the world of DMCA take-down notices, the copyright holder sends 6 wrongful take down notices, maybe they should lose access to the copyright system itself. Why is this limited to occasional, or amateur or individual persons who induce copyright infringement and why are they subjected to these type of penalties?ReadWrite: How is copyright disruptive to technology?Andrew Bridges: New technologies do disrupt existing business models. They do disrupt current expectations of profits and revenues. Actually copyright law itself has its own disruptive function. The function of copyright law as it has evolved is indeed to disrupt innovation and to disrupt new technologies that threaten the interest of copyright holders. Frankly all copyright legislation has been in reaction to new technologies that are developed. And copyright law has sought as its purpose, interfering with, limiting, pampering and indeed disrupting innovation of technology, business plans, even disruption of consumer choice.ReadWrite: For example?Andrew Bridges: It’s illegal to operate a business where you rent CDs out. Under copyright law, it’s illegal to watch on your DVD player, a DVD that a Greek friend of mine brings over as a present, because it has region coding. That’s a disruption of a user experience, by copyright law. We talk about disruptive technologies, but I think we’re talking about both disruptive technologies and disruptive law. I think if we have to look at rival disruptions, on the one hand [disruption] of business models and our expectations, and the other side [disruption] of technological developments and innovations and consumer choice, then I tend to cast my allegiance on the side of those who are disrupting older business models. That is how an economy grows, by creative disruption. That’s exactly how innovation enriches our culture and gives us the progress of science and the useful arts.ReadWrite: How out of whack are the penalties for copyright violation?Andrew Bridges: A woman in Minnesota got hit with a jury verdict of $1.5 million for downloads without any evidence that she actually shared anything with anybody else. That law allows statutory damages, which I call fictional damages because they [are] divorced from any proof whatsoever. The law allows fictional damages of $150,000 per work infringed. And that includes $0.99 downloads. So the ratio between penalty and loss revenue is excessive… 150,000 to 1. Let’s put copyright in the broader context. If I jump the turnstile of the New York City subway, If the copyright proportionality damages applies, it would be OK for that penalty fare to be $370,000. It’s as ridiculous in copyright law as it is in subway law.ReadWrite: So who’s at fault here?Andrew Bridges: People are focusing on Congress, [but] that’s misplaced… after SOPA. Because things don’t have to happen in Congress for bad things to go off. Even though SOPA failed, SOPA is now in some respects the law of the land. Because we now have Soft SOPA. We have the government putting pressure on advertising networks and putting pressure on payment processors, unofficially, to take the same measures that SOPA was going to require them to [do]. But now it’s a sort of ‘if you know what’s good for you, could you pretty please, wink-wink’ method.ReadWrite: Can you give an example of that pressure?Andrew Bridges: There are payment processors notifying companies that they are no longer willing to process payments for them. It’s happening. It happened with three of my clients. It’s part of what the administration calls its ‘voluntary cooperation initiative,’ which the Intellectual Property Enforcement Coordinator Victoria Espinel describes in her annual report. And we have advertisers blacklisting certain sites, and telling sites. ‘We’re not going to place advertising on your site because people tell us you’re not a good site.’ So that’s happening. And it’s being done as “Oh it’s just a private decision.” But it’s no secret that the government is encouraging these private decisions. So that’s why I call it Soft SOPA.Photo courtesy of Wendy Seltzer. Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Tags:#copyright#privacy#security#SXSW 2013 adam popescu A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai…
The No. 1 dual-threat quarterback in the country committed to Ohio State this evening and with his pledge, a five-star wide receiver (or two or three) could be following him to Columbus. Tate Martell, a four-star quarterback in the 2017 class out of Las Vegas, announced his commitment to Ohio State on Twitter. The 5-foot-10, 203-pound prospect out of Bishop Gorman (Nevada) is very close with Tyjon Lindsey, a five-star wide receiver in the same class. They played together at Bishop Gorman before Lindsey moved back to California this winter. Lindsey congratulated Martell on Twitter regarding his commitment. Martell responded, “You are next!” OMM I HAD NO IDEA THIS WAS COMING..CONGRATS TATE MAN NO MATTER WHAT WE’RE ALWAYS BROTHERS, TOGETHER OR NOT. Love u https://t.co/fs6kw8Z08x— Tyjon A. Lindsey ® (@tyjonlindsey) June 13, 2016Thanks bro! You are next! https://t.co/GtChALHEPf— Tate Martell (@TheTateMartell) June 13, 2016There has long been speculation that Martell and Lindsey will end up playing for the same school. Ohio State has now obviously added half of the potential package deal and the Buckeyes are believed to be the favorite to land the other half. Lindsey, a speedy 5-foot-8 wideout out of California, is currently crystal-balled to Ohio State. 247Sports.He recently did this at Rivals’ 5-Star Challenge. HOUSE CALL . #RivalsChallenge WR MVP @RivalsCamp pic.twitter.com/g3cStTWmMg— Tyjon A. Lindsey ® (@tyjonlindsey) June 12, 2016Martell will surely be recruiting Lindsey to Columbus, but the Corona, Calif. product won’t be the only five-star wide receiver the quarterback tries to push to the Buckeyes. Jeremy Birmingham of Eleven Warriors says five-star wide receivers Trevon Grimes and Donovan Peoples-Jones will also be a “priority” for Martell. Martell (@TheTateMartell) will three five-star WRs his priority: Trevon Grimes, Donovan Peoples-Jones and Tyjon Lindsey.— Jeremy Birmingham (@Birm) June 13, 2016Peoples-Jones (No. 6), Grimes (No. 28) and Lindsey (No. 30) are all ranked in the top 30 of 247Sports’ Composite Rankings for 2017.Ohio State’s 2017 class is the No. 1 class in the country. MORE FROM COLLEGE SPUN:The 10 Most Aggressive Fan Bases In CFBIn Photos: Golfer Paige SpiranacESPN Makes Decision On Dick Vitale
Los Angeles: US actress Lori Loughlin appeared in federal court in downtown Los Angeles in connection with a massive college admissions scam involving other celebrities and top industry CEOs. Bail for the “Full House” star was set at USD 1 million, the same amount as for her husband, designer Mossimo Giannulli, who has also been charged in the case. The couple, who are to appear in federal court in Boston on March 29, allegedly paid USD 500,000 in bribes to ensure their two daughters were recruited to the University of Southern California rowing team even though the pair did not participate in crew. Also Read – Imran Khan arrives in China, to meet Prez Xi JinpingLoughlin, 54, surrendered to FBI agents early Wednesday after returning from Vancouver, where she was filming. Judge Steve Kim told the star in setting her bail that she would still be allowed to travel for work as long as the court was made aware of her plans. The couple were among 50 people indicted on Tuesday in a scam to help children of the American elite gain entry into top US colleges. “Desperate Housewives” star Felicity Huffman, who has also been implicated in the scandal, was arrested by FBI agents at her home on Tuesday and later released on bail. Also Read – US blacklists 28 Chinese entities over abuses in XinjiangThe 56-year-old actress and her husband William H Macy, the star of Showtime’s hit series “Shameless,” allegedly paid USD 15,000 for their eldest daughter to perform well on a college entrance exam. Macy was mentioned in the case but has not been charged. The ringleader behind the scam, William “Rick” Singer, who authorities say was paid about USD 25 million dollars to bribe coaches and university administrators, has pleaded guilty and is cooperating with authorities. Some of the universities targeted in the elaborate cheating scam include Yale, Stanford, UCLA and Georgetown. None of the schools or the students has been charged in the case. According to prosecutors, the accused parents paid a firm run by Singer as much as USD 6 million to cheat on college entrance exams for their children or to bribe coaches to help non-athletic students get scholarships. Others ensnared in the scandal include Gordon Caplan, co-chairman of New York law firm Willkie Farr & Gallagher, who allegedly paid USD 75,000 to have his daughter’s test grades fixed. Also charged is William McGlashan, an executive at the investment group TPG Capital who specialized in technology investments. He allegedly paid hundreds of thousands of dollars to ensure his son got into the University of Southern California as a student athlete. The scandal has lit up social media, with many poking fun and expressing anger at the wealthy parents indicted notably Loughlin and Huffman as well as their children. “CAPTION THIS: ‘It’s ok honey. We’ll get you in a college close to your mom’s prison so you can visit,” one Twitter user said in response to a picture Huffman had posted on Sunday of her daughter sitting on Macy’s lap and hugging him. Ben Dreyfuss, the son of veteran actor Richard Dreyfuss, quipped: “I got into college the old fashioned way: by letting my father’s celebrity speak for itself.” Another Twitter user said: “So what I’ve learned from #CollegeCheatingScandal is that rich kids are so stupid that they can’t get into colleges without cheating.” Olivia Jade Giannulli, one of Loughlin’s daughters, disabled comments on her Instagram posts on Wednesday after some of her 1.3 million followers lashed out against her. “Please do a video for how you prepared for the SATs,” read one comment. Another berated the young woman, who posted a video blog last year in which she said she didn’t care about school, for stealing a college spot from “another deserving student (who probably actually rows!!)…”
Former Inter Milan goalkeeper Francesco Toldo insists that the club remain as Juventus’ closest challengers, despite a mixed start to the seasonLuciano Spalletti’s side have only claimed one win in their opening four league games and lie 15th in the Serie A table.This development comes as somewhat as a surprise to many considering that Inter invested over €77m this summer on new recruits in order to challenge for their first Serie A crown since the 2009/10 campaign.“The Nerazzurri continue to be the anti-Juventus, despite their limitations. I am sorry that Inter have remained lacking in terms of scoring,” Toldo told Radio Marte.Juventus confirm Mario Mandzukic could leave this month Andrew Smyth – September 14, 2019 Sporting director Fabio Paratici confirmed reports that Mario Mandzukic could leave Juventus for a move to an unnamed Qatari team.The 46-year-old also gave his verdict on Napoli, who replaced coach Maurizio Sarri for Carlo Ancelotti this summer.“Napoli are still too dependent on Sarri. Carlo Ancelotti is a great coach and a great man but the team still has to demonstrate its continuity,” he said.While they struggle domestically, Inter won their Champions League opener against Tottenham Hotspur 2-1 on Tuesday evening.
Diego Simeone hailed Atletico Madrid’s tenacious display in their 2-0 win against Real Sociedad.Goals from Diego Godin and Filipe Luis ensured victory for Atletico, just three days after their 4-0 drubbing by Borussia Dortmund, although Costa’s goal drought in La Liga stretched to nine months.“We always have the responsibility and need to compete well in every game,” Simeone told Football Espana after the game.“We had a good game in Dortmund, beyond the bad result we took back. We’ve responded very well after three days.“We made almost no changes because I saw the players in a good way and it was difficult to for outsiders to come in.La Liga Betting: Match-day 4 Stuart Heath – September 14, 2019 Despite it being very early into La Liga season, both Barcelona and Real Madrid have had unprecedented starts to their campaigns. With this in…“I really liked the continuity we played with, as well as our heads and the sense of rebellion in our play.“Costa’s working hard to get back among the goals. He’s extraordinary and a very important player for us.“If he plays like did today, he’ll be very close to scoring. This is the way forward for him, there’s no other.”The Coach later gave his verdict on the with his side ahead of Barcelona in the table.“I care a lot about what happened today, although tomorrow will be a great match between two extraordinary teams and two sets of very good players,” he concluded.
Chelsea assistant coach Gianfranco Zola claims that even though Eden Hazard may not be known for his industry off the ball, Chelsea still needs him to assist the team.The Belgium winger hasn’t really impressed in all his outing this term after he was deployed by new coach Sarri to play as a false nine.Chelsea defeated Tottenham 2-1 on penalties to reach the EFL Cup final on Thursday with Hazard scoring the Blues’ second goal in a second leg.“I was very much like Eden,” Zola told reporters, according to FourFourTwo.“I was a very positive player, I liked to move around the pitch, find the spots on the pitch where I could receive the ball, turn and make the damage to the opposition.Premier League Betting: Match-day 5 Stuart Heath – September 14, 2019 Going into the Premier League’s match-day five with a gap already beginning to form at the top of the league. We will take a…“I was very, very similar and I do understand that. I believe we try to give him this but also to be an organised team defensively and offensively. Especially offensively. That’s why we ask Eden sometimes to put himself about in working hard.“I know that’s not his best quality. We understand that sometimes he needs to be fresh when he receives the ball. There is no doubt that we are on the same page. We want to find a common ground where he can get the best out of himself and the team can benefit from him.“Not only when he is scoring goals but when we have moments in the game where we need everybody to defend and everybody to press. That’s exactly what we are trying to do. Eden, I think, I have to be fair that he has been doing it.“He has been trying to do it. We are very demanding because we want to do it all the time. I am sure that we will find a compromise. I am not in a position to criticise a player like Eden. We believe, Maurizio said one thing, that the potential of Hazard is greater than the performances.“So he is not criticising what Eden is doing but he believes he can do much more for himself and the team. That’s all he is saying. This is the situation he wants Hazard to understand. Again, when we see his performances we look forward to seeing more and more.”
More From Roadshow Share your voice 2016 Chevy Colorado diesel: A 7,700-pound hauler, 30-plus mpg runabout Post a comment 0 2019 Porsche 911 Speedster first drive: Superb sensations 2020 Porsche 911 Carrera S: The complete package Car Industry Diesel Cars BMW Volkswagen Mercedes-Benz Tags In 2017, the European Union’s antitrust regulators headed to the offices of BMW, Daimler and members of the Volkswagen Group to investigate allegations that the automakers colluded against improving their vehicles’ emissions. The European Commission on Friday announced that it sent a Statement of Objections to BMW, Daimler and Volkswagen for allegedly colluding to restrict competition and artificially delay the development of emission-reducing car technology. “Companies can cooperate in many ways to improve the quality of their products. However, EU competition rules do not allow them to collude on exactly the opposite: not to improve their products, not to compete on quality,” said Margrethe Vestager, member of the European Commission in charge of competition policy, in a statement. “We are concerned that this is what happened in this case and that Daimler, VW and BMW may have broken EU competition rules. As a result, European consumers may have been denied the opportunity to buy cars with the best available technology.”Enlarge ImageThis isn’t just about diesels, but they’re in here, too. SOPA Images/Getty Images According to the Commission’s press release, the group is concerned that collusion occurred with regards to two different emissions-reductions systems. On the diesel side, the group alleges that the automakers “coordinated their AdBlue dosing strategies, AdBlue tank size and refill ranges between 2006 and 2014 with the common understanding that they thereby limited AdBlue-consumption and exhaust gas cleaning effectiveness.” Gas-powered cars didn’t escape the conversation, either. While selective catalytic reduction (urea/AdBlue injection) doesn’t exist for gas engines, there are particulate filters that can help reduce tailpipe emissions. In this case, the Commission believes that “BMW, Daimler and VW coordinated to avoid, or at least to delay, the introduction of [‘Otto’ particulate filters] in their new (direct injection) petrol passenger car models between 2009 and 2014, and to remove uncertainty about their future market conduct.”In an emailed statement, a Daimler spokesperson said that the automaker is cooperating with the European Commission and would not comment further on this ongoing case. Volkswagen said it will continue to cooperate with the Commission, as well. BMW did not immediately return Roadshow’s requests for comment.The Commission noted in its release that, while this doesn’t rise to the level of price fixing, it’s still a potential violation of EU competition guidelines. That said, this Statement of Objections isn’t a binding determination of any kind — automakers will still get to present their cases to the Commission — but if fines are levied, they could amount to 10 percent of the automakers’ global revenue, totaling billions of dollars.