(PhysOrg.com) — Semiconductor company AMD has taken its story of having developed next-generation GPU technology offering a “gorgeous, stunning, breathtaking visual experience” for more elite, serious gamers over to mainstream gamers as well. AMD this week announced a pair of new graphics cards for gaming enthusiasts looking for affordable prices for features that rock. Namely, AMD yesterday announced its Radeon HD 7870 and 7850 video cards. © 2011 PhysOrg.com More information: Press release AMD Launches World’s Fastest Motherboard GPU: AMD 790GX Citation: AMD balances Radeon deck of graphics cards (2012, March 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-03-amd-radeon-deck-graphics-cards.html Explore further The two cards have a lot in common. They both are designed to compete with Nvidia. They both support PCI Express 3.0. They both support CrossFire technology, which refers to AMD’s technology allowing up to four GPUs to be used in a single computer to improve graphics performance. They both use AMD’s Graphics Core Next Architecture, for “intense visual experience, and “breathtaking visual fidelity” in games. They both support AMD ZeroCore Power technology, which shuts down the GPU during idle periods. Both have 2 GB of GDDR5 GPU graphics memory .Where the difference lies is clock speed, as well as price. The HD 7870 GHz has a 1 GHz clock speed, while the HD 7850 is clocked at 860 MHz. Prices will be around $350 for the HD 7870 GHz and around $249 for the HD 7850. Cards featuring the GPUs will be available from Asus, Diamond, MSI, and other AMD partners. Getting the cards to market gives AMD’s gaming partners selling points that they like, such as “gaming edge,” and enhanced experiences with the new AMD graphic cards. Reviewers are saying that the new cards achieve a nice balance between performance and power consumption, meanwhile. General reactions by AMD watchers have been favorable, especially on grounds of power efficiency. The cards reportedly perform with relatively low power consumption, which translate into cooler, less noisy computers , which gamers will appreciate. As Tom’s Hardware puts it, “lower power means less heat. Less heat translates to more conservative cooling. And that leaves the door open for gaming enthusiasts to enjoy quieter systems that go easier on the power bill.”The other round of applause is accorded on price. For those who have been unable to afford GPU chips at Radeon HD 7970 and Radeon HD 7950 prices, the HD 7870 and HD 7850 cards will be attractive options. The cards are reportedly set to become available widely around March 19. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Journal information: PLoS ONE Research reveals the origins of chooks Because humans have had such a long history of moving chickens around, it’s been difficult to pin down just where they came from originally, that’s why the team decided to turn to mitochondrial DNA testing. They examined the bones of 48 chickens that have been found in various archeological sites all over the world, and which were in good enough condition to extract mitochondrial DNA. They focused particularly on a strand known as the D-Loop, because it’s not involved in functional genes which means they are retained generation after generation. In that sequence, they found clear similarities between all of the chicken samples, which they say proves that chickens all came from a common ancestor. And because the samples found in Southeast Asia (India, Malaysia and Burma) were the oldest, they were able to narrow down the origin of the chicken to one of those three countries or maybe one nearby.Prior to domestication, researchers believe chickens were simple junglefowl, which don’t migrate. This means the birds could only get to the other places they’ve traveled through being carried by people, because no other means has been found. Thus, in tracking the different locations of the birds over time, it’s possible to also track the migration of people. The research team believes for example, that chickens arrived in the Americas via several routes; Polynesia, Europe and Africa and perhaps directly from Asia, which of course coincides with theories regarding how people first arrived.Unfortunately current technology can’t yet clear the picture entirely, but the researchers are confident that advances over the next few years will allow them to pin down the actual location of the first domesticated chicken and settle the matter once and for all. More information: Storey AA, Athens JS, Bryant D, Carson M, Emery K, et al. (2012) Investigating the Global Dispersal of Chickens in Prehistory Using Ancient Mitochondrial DNA Signatures. PLoS ONE 7(7): e39171. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039171AbstractData from morphology, linguistics, history, and archaeology have all been used to trace the dispersal of chickens from Asian domestication centers to their current global distribution. Each provides a unique perspective which can aid in the reconstruction of prehistory. This study expands on previous investigations by adding a temporal component from ancient DNA and, in some cases, direct dating of bones of individual chickens from a variety of sites in Europe, the Pacific, and the Americas. The results from the ancient DNA analyses of forty-eight archaeologically derived chicken bones provide support for archaeological hypotheses about the prehistoric human transport of chickens. Haplogroup E mtDNA signatures have been amplified from directly dated samples originating in Europe at 1000 B.P. and in the Pacific at 3000 B.P. indicating multiple prehistoric dispersals from a single Asian centre. These two dispersal pathways converged in the Americas where chickens were introduced both by Polynesians and later by Europeans. The results of this study also highlight the inappropriate application of the small stretch of D-loop, traditionally amplified for use in phylogenetic studies, to understanding discrete episodes of chicken translocation in the past. The results of this study lead to the proposal of four hypotheses which will require further scrutiny and rigorous future testing. (Phys.org) — The lowly chicken has had a remarkable impact on human history, providing a food source for innumerable people over the years. Modern scientists believe chickens (Gallus gallus) were first domesticated over 5000 years ago somewhere in Southeast Asia, and since that time have been carried to every place that humans exist. Tracking their migration helps historians track human migration. Now new research by a team made up of people from a variety of sciences from around the world has found, using mitochondrial DNA evidence from bones of ancient chickens, what they believe to be the great-grandmother’s of the modern chicken. They have published their findings in the journal PLoS One. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Researchers track global dispersion of chickens throughout history using DNA (2012, July 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-07-track-global-dispersion-chickens-history.html A close up of the E and D branches of a Maximum Parsimony Network showing the affinities of ten of the eleven, non-continuiously numbered, ancient haplogroups detected in our 48 samples with those previously defined by Liu et al. Image: PLoS ONE 7(7): e39171. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039171 © 2012 Phys.Org Explore further
Credit: Jm Verastigue/public domain Chatham House of the British Royal Institute of Affairs has published a report titled Livestock – Climate Change’s Forgotten Sector (Global Public Opinion on Meat and Dairy Consumption) outlining the results of a survey the group commissioned to learn more about the public’s perception of the impact that the livestock industry has on carbon emissions and ultimately global warming. Their report suggests that consumers have vastly differing views on the subject based on where they live in the world. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further More information: www.chathamhouse.org/sites/fil … roggattWellesley.pdf In addition to offering results of the 12-country survey, the authors of the report offer some background information and opinions about the carbon emission impact of the livestock industry and conclude by offering suggestions of where changes might be made. They note that global carbon emissions from the livestock industry—which they claim currently account for 14.5% of total man-made global emissions—actually surpass that of global transportation and are mainly due to emissions released directly from animals in the form of belching, flatulence or from their excrement. The main animals involved in the industry are cows, pigs and chickens—globally pork is the most popular consumed meat due to its huge popularity in China. The report also offer graphs showing the largest meat consumers by country (China tops the list) along with growth forecasts. They also offer warnings, suggesting that the livestock industry is currently on a trajectory that will see meat consumption rise by 75 percent and dairy 65 percent over just the next six years.Questions in the survey centered on awareness of carbon emissions, their source and the likely impact they are having on the planet. They found that on average, people in more developed countries such as those in the U.S. and Europe were far less well informed about the impact that the livestock industry has on the planet than were people living in places like China or even Brazil—the same groups tended to be more resistant to changing their lifestyle to reduce such emissions.The authors of the report theorize that emissions from the livestock industry are not as well known as in other areas such as the transportation or energy sector because governments and private enterprise operations do not want to risk upsetting the public by suggesting they eat less meat and/or dairy products. They note that discussing or negotiating livestock emission reductions is “largely absent” from international meetings on climate change and likewise is rarely if ever discussed at the national level by countries seeking to lower their carbon imprint. The solution, as they see it, is to begin an information campaign, because people are more likely to embrace change if they understand what is really happening. Climate: Meat turns up the heat Citation: Report claims consumers are uninformed regarding magnitude of livestock contribution to carbon emissions (2014, December 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-12-consumers-uninformed-magnitude-livestock-contribution.html © 2014 Phys.org
Coronal mass ejections at Mars © 2014 Phys.org Conrad notes that a lot of the press regarding the study of Mars by scientists with NASA and other groups, tends to focus on the search for water, or evidence that water was once there—with the implication that if it was, then surely evidence will be found that life was there too. But that is not really the case, she asserts—there are likely a whole host of factors that must all be there for life to have been possible.Some of those factors might include a global magnetic field (likely produced by an internal dynamo) which would shield the planet from ionizing radiation. Another would be temperature and its variations—too hot or too cold for only part of any given period would likely prevent life from taking hold. Wind might also play a factor—she notes that as life is first starting, it’s not likely very mobile, thus wind that would carry essential material such as iron deposits to replenish supplies exhausted by new life forms would be essential. There is also the matter of an atmosphere—having one offers a shield against ultraviolet radiation and also serves as a cloak, moderating temperatures.But such factors, she continues, are much more difficult to find than water. Scientists are reasonably sure that Mars once had an atmosphere and global magnetic field—it’s more difficult to pin down whether they were existent at the same time, and if so, if temperatures were in a range during that period that would have allowed life to come about.Conrad notes that missions to Mars are proving fruitful regardless of whether proof of life is found or not. Such missions, she maintains are allowing us humans to learn more about how life could come about, which could prove useful once we’re able to study more distant planets more carefully—and that includes a manned mission, which should allow researchers, she believes, to do the kind of impromptu research that most often leads to breakthroughs. Citation: NASA scientist offers perspective on the factors that may lead to life on a planet (2014, December 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-12-nasa-scientist-perspective-factors-life.html Explore further This artist’s concept depicts a planetary system. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech (Phys.org)—NASA space scientist Pamela Conrad has offered a Perspective piece in the journal Science, reminding readers that the search for life on planets such as Mars, isn’t limited to just looking for water. Instead, she notes, most researchers believe that a combination of events must occur, likely simultaneously for life to get a start and then to be maintained. Journal information: Science More information: Scratching the surface of martian habitability, Science 12 December 2014: Vol. 346 no. 6215 pp. 1288-1289, DOI: 10.1126/science.1259943 AbstractEarth and Mars, though formed at the same time from the same materials, look very different today. Early in their histories they evolved through some of the same processes, but at some point their evolutionary paths diverged, sending them in perhaps irrevocably different directions. Knowledge of the factors that contributed to such different outcomes will help to determine how planets become habitable and how common habitable planets may be. The Mars surface environment is harsh today, but in situ measurements of ancient sedimentary rock by Mars Science Laboratory reveal chemical and mineralogical evidence of past conditions that might have been more favorable for life to exist. But chemistry is only part of what is required to make an environment habitable. Physical conditions constrain the chemical reactions that underlie life processes; the chemical and physical characteristics that make planets habitable are thus entangled. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
A meteoroid smashed into the side of a crater on Mars and then started a landslide © 2018 Phys.org More information: Lu Liu et al. Hot streaks in artistic, cultural, and scientific careers, Nature (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0315-8AbstractThe hot streak—loosely defined as ‘winning begets more winnings’—highlights a specific period during which an individual’s performance is substantially better than his or her typical performance. Although hot streaks have been widely debated in sports, gambling and financial markets over the past several decades, little is known about whether they apply to individual careers. Here, building on rich literature on the lifecycle of creativity, we collected large-scale career histories of individual artists, film directors and scientists, tracing the artworks, films and scientific publications they produced. We find that, across all three domains, hit works within a career show a high degree of temporal regularity, with each career being characterized by bursts of high-impact works occurring in sequence. We demonstrate that these observations can be explained by a simple hot-streak model, allowing us to probe quantitatively the hot streak phenomenon governing individual careers. We find this phenomemon to be remarkably universal across diverse domains: hot streaks are ubiquitous yet usually unique across different careers. The hot streak emerges randomly within an individual’s sequence of works, is temporally localized, and is not associated with any detectable change in productivity. We show that, because works produced during hot streaks garner substantially more impact, the uncovered hot streaks fundamentally drive the collective impact of an individual, and ignoring this leads us to systematically overestimate or underestimate the future impact of a career. These results not only deepen our quantitative understanding of patterns that govern individual ingenuity and success, but also may have implications for identifying and nurturing individuals whose work will have lasting impact. An international team of researchers has conducted a statistical analysis of hot streaks to learn more about this mysterious facet of human nature. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the group describes how they conducted their study and what they found. Credit: CC0 Public Domain A hot streak is a commonly used term to describe a series of successful ventures—for example, winning hand after hand in poker, making multiple three-point shots in a basketball game, or winning several games in a row. It is generally tied to human achievement and is steeped in folklore—particularly in sports and gambling. But is it a real thing? And if so, are there characteristics involved with it that could help explain how and why they occur?To learn more about hot streaks in general, the researchers studied them as they occurred in three fields with measurable data: artistry, filmmaking and scientific research. Artistic hot streaks, they figured, could be measured by sales price and volume. Filmmaking hot streaks could be measured using box office tallies—and scientific hot streaks could be measured by looking at citation numbers. The researchers obtained data from art auctions, the IMDb database and research paper databases, respectively.After applying a number of statistical techniques to their data, the researchers came away with several conclusions. The first is that the hot streak does appear to be a real phenomenon. And it happened to most of those individuals they studied—91 percent of artists who sold their work at auctions, for example, experienced a hot streak. The same was true for 92 percent of movie directors and 90 percent of research scientists. But they also found that it was rare for people in any of the three fields to experience more than one hot streak. They also found that the span of time for hot streaks across the three fields was relatively similar—5.7 years on average for artists, 5.2 for directors and 3.7 for research scientists.Interestingly, the researchers found that having a hot streak did not seem to be tied to productivity—very few of those studied produced any more than they did during times when they were not experiencing a hot streak. Also, hot streaks could occur at almost any time during a person’s career. The researchers note also that they could find no measurable data that might help explain why hot streaks occurred. Journal information: Nature Explore further Citation: A statistical study of the hot streak (2018, July 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-07-statistical-hot-streak.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
More information: A. V. Karpova et al. X-ray studies of the gamma-ray pulsar J1826-1256 and its pulsar wind nebula with Chandra and XMM-Newton arXiv:1906.00821v1 [astro-ph.HE]. arxiv.org/abs/1906.00821 Citation: X-ray study sheds more light into the nature of a gamma-ray pulsar (2019, June 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-06-x-ray-nature-gamma-ray-pulsar.html Using archival data from ESA’s XMM-Newton spacecraft and NASA’s Chandra X-ray observatory, astronomers have investigated one of gamma-ray radio-quiet pulsars known as PSR J1826−1256. The study, based on X-ray observations, sheds more light into the nature of this peculiar object and its pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Results of the research were presented in a paper published June 3 on arXiv.org. 3 arcmin × 3 arcmin Chandra X-ray image of the pulsar vicinity in 0.5–10 keV range smoothed with a 25 pixel Gaussian kernel. The ‘+’ symbol shows the pulsar position. The ‘jet’ and ‘counter-jet’ are marked. The 30 arcsec × 30 arcsec image part, enclosed by the cyan dashed box and smoothed with a 3 pixel Gaussian kernel, is enlarged in the inset. The possible PWN torus and the base part of the ‘jet’ are marked. Credit: Karpova et al., 2019. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2019 Science X Network Explore further Gamma-ray pulsars are rotating neutron stars emitting gamma-ray photons. Some of them also showcase radio emission that is often difficult to detect. This is most probably because their narrow radio beams miss the sightline towards Earth.However, some gamma-ray pulsars are completely radio-quiet, which means that observations in other regimes, for instance, in X-ray wavelengths, are needed to learn about their properties. In particular, X-ray studies of such objects have the potential to reveal their pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) and associated supernova remnants (SNRs), which could provide important information about pulsar parameters and interaction of relativistic pulsar winds with the ambient medium.With that aim in mind, a team of Russian astronomers from the Ioffe Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia, led by Anna V. Karpova, decided to analyze archival X-ray data obtained by XMM-Newton and Chandra spacecraft. The target of their studies was a young and energetic radio-quiet pulsar designated PSR J1826−1256. Located most likely some 4,320 light years away from the Earth, PSR J1826−1256 is about 14,000 years old, has a period of 110.2 milliseconds, a spin-down luminosity of around 3.6 undecillion erg/s and a surface magnetic field of approximately 3.7 trillion G. Based on these parameters, the object was classified as a Vela-like pulsar. Moreover, previous observations have shown that PSR J1826−1256 hosts a faint, but remarkably long trail-like PWN connected to the pulsar and extending south-west from it.The new study published by Karpova’s team provides more insights into the nature of PSR J1826−1256 and a PWN associated with it.”Here we report the simultaneous X-ray analysis of archival XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of PSR J1826−1256 and its PWN,” the astronomers wrote in the paper.The study found that the spectrum of PSR J1826−1256 can be described by the power-law model with a photon index of about 1.0 and that the PWN spectrum becomes softer with the distance from the pulsar, what is indicative of synchrotron cooling.When it comes to the PWN, the analysis revealed that it appears to be a mixed-type morphology nebula containing a torus, jets and a trail. XMM-Newton and Chandra images show that one of the jets is bent by the ram pressure, due to the pulsar proper motion vector not coinciding with the jet direction. The researchers noted that such geometry explains the PWN morphology and also suggests that it could be associated with a recently detected SNR candidate named G18.45−0.42.The study also found that PSR J1826−1256 is located much farther away than previously thought. New estimates made by the team indicate that its distance to our planet is approximately 11,400 light years. Astronomers investigate pulsar wind nebula DA 495
The Public Service Broadcasting Trust (PSBT), which has carved out a niche for itself in over a decade in making non-commercial documentaries on pressing issues involving women, is all set to host its 13th international film festival beginning here 11 Sept.Slated to last till 21 Sept, the PSBT film festival, aptly rechristened Open Frame International Film Festival will be held at the IIC here with an active collaboration by the latter in conducting it. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The festival accords the Delhi denizens a rare opportunity to watch the PSBT’s documentaries which earlier have been shown and applauded in festivals in the world over at places ranging from Oberhausean to Estonia and from Kerala to New York.Films slated to be screened ‘focus on the narratives of and by the women, foregrounding their experiences and embodying a wide range of issues that require their critical examination,’ say organisers. Credited with making over 540 independent films and screening them in 660 global film festivals, winning 170 awards, including 37 National Awards, besides wide-ranging critical acclaim. The films address, examine, present and celebrate woman’s lives, struggle, solidarities and movements. Film lovers don’t miss this one. pti
The festival not only aims to provide a wholesome insight into Polish culture and art, but also hopes to rouse further interest in the audience so as the association of exchange continues.The festival began with the screening of the documentary film A little Poland in India directed by Anu Radha and Sumit Osmand Shaw. A Little Poland in India’ is a first film that has been co-produced between the governments of India and Poland, under the audio-visual agreement between both the countries. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The film is about the time period of World War II, when about 1,000 Polish children travelled to India. ‘Our relationship with India stretched back to World War II when India opened her heart to the Polish refugee children and offered them both home and human warmth. We shall never forget the generosity of spirit,’said Piotr Ktodkowski, the Polish ambassador.The film festival will be also screening other films like llumination directed by Krzystof Zanussi, Escape from the Liberty Cinema directed by Wojciech Marczewski, My Father’s Bike directed by Piotr Trzaskalski and the Promised Land directed by Andrzej Wajda.WHEN: 18 till 23 NovemberWHERE: India Habitat Centre, PVR Select Citywalk (3 December)
Krishna, a dance drama, that portrays the life Lord Krishna’s is being organised by Shriram Bharatiya Kala Kendra. The two and half hours long act is produced and directed by Shobha Deepak Singh and will be staged at Kamani Auditorium.The show is the 39th edition of Shriram Bharatiya Kala Kendra’s Krishna that traverses Lord Krishna’s early childhood and youthful antics, that travelled with him in his journey to the centre stage of human reverence. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The production presents the ‘butter eating Krishna’ and beloved of Radha on one hand and on the other, the omnipotent Lord Krishna, who commands with wisdom, dignity and strength the flow of events, which emerge as the greatest illuminates for living life in the real world as a holistic being, offering wisdom in his enunciation of the revered Bhagwad Gita’s practical solutions, rather than pursuing blind faith dictating ‘right’ and ‘wrong’. Singh presents, all facets of Lord Krishna’s persona with creative sensitivity, lending a mesmeric dynamism to the production. In Krishna’s presentation of violence and eventual emergence of place, despite all odds emerges hope for eventual peace, despite apparent chaos in the present.When: 16 – 18 August Where: Kamani Auditorium Ticket Price: Rs.500, 300
Kolkata: Rains accompanied by thunderstorms lashed the city and South Bengal districts on Tuesday evening throwing normal life out of gear.According to report, two persons including a woman were killed in two separate incidents in North 24-Parganas’ Shyamnagar. It was learnt that the victim woman identified as Maya Roy was passing through Atapur area when a wall collapsed and fell on her. Roy was a local resident, police said. She succumbed to her injuries in a hospital. While in the other incident, a 52-year-old Bhaskar Thakur died after being struck by lightning. He was working in a field at Natunpara in Shyamnagar when the incident occurred. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsHe was declared brought dead after being taken to Barrackpore BN Bose Hospital on Tuesday afternoon.A thundershower accompanied by a strong wind hit the city and the districts like North 24-Parganas, Howrah, Hooghly, Nadia, East Burdwan and West Midnapore disrupting the normal life. People faced inconvenience due to incessant rainfall in the afternoon. Train services were also affected in Sealdah and Howrah division. Some trains were delayed due to increment weather conditions. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThe rain, however, brought relief to the people suffering from hot and humid condition prevailing in the state. The regional meteorological centre at Alipore had predicted that there was a possibility of rains and thundershowers towards the evening. A strong moisture-laden South-Westerly wind would be blowing in the area, creating favourable condition for a storm. A strong wind was blowing at 40-50 km per hour in some parts of the city as well as in districts of South Bengal. The rain has brought the temperature down by a few notches. The city dwellers are, however, facing a sultry weather, especially during the day time. The regional Meteorological centre at Alipore predicted that the city and its adjoining districts may witness thunderstorms in the evenings in the next few days. Slow traffic movement was reported in some parts of the city following the rain. The districts that have received the maximum rainfall are North 24-Parganas, Howrah, Hooghly while various parts of Nadia, Murshidabad and Birbhum also witnessed thunderstorms.According to the weather office, there are predictions of wind measuring around 50-60 km per hour that might sweep through various districts in North Bengal in the next few days. Wind measuring around 60-70 km per hour may also sweep through some of the South Bengal districts, along with moderate rainfall, the weather office predicted.